Q.1 Compare and contrast the functionalist and Marxist perspectives. Which theory is more suitable in explaining the social world?
Sociology has been classified as the last in a long line of emerging scientific disciplines which people have developed and explored in order to make sense of their world. Early theories such as the positivist approach of Comte, the functionalist views of Emile Durkheim and the conflict perspectives of Karl Marx have offered a view of why human beings behave as they do and how they fit together in society………………………………………………
Q.2 Write down a comprehensive note on social action theory and the concept of verstehen.
The social action theory was founded by Max Weber. There are two main types of sociological theories; the first is the structural or macro theory while the other is social action, interpretive or micro perspectives. At the two ends of the argument as to which is a better theory are Durkheim, the founding father of functionalism, and Weber, the mastermind behind social action theory.
As the ‘micro’ name suggests, social action perspectives examine smaller groups within society. Unlike structuralism, they are also concerned with the subjective states of individuals. Very much unlike a structuralist perspective, social action theorists see society as a product of human activity……………………………..
Q.3 Compare the work of different theorists on theory of social exchange.
Social Exchange Theory proposes that behaviors can be thought of as the result of cost-benefit analyses by people attempting to interact with society and the environment. If a person believes that they are able to extract more of a reward through a behavior than they lose by performing it, then the person will perform the behavior. Conversely, when the person feels that the cost will outweigh the benefit, the behavior will not be performed. If someone does not value maintaining a relationship, or is distrustful and does not expect others to follow through with the reward, then the balance would be shifted toward anticipating a lower worth to any social exchange. That is, the relative costs would be higher, and the anticipated rewards would be lower. Such a mind-set could produce a short-term orientation favoring immediate, assured rewards, and would elicit the socially aversive behaviors characteristic of the Dark Triad. However, while we agree that there are costs and benefits, we are suspicious of apparent the Neo-Classical Economics assumption that humans are rational, calculating animals We’re taught to weigh pros and cons…………………………………..
Q.4 Which sociological theory inspires you the most? Please give arguments to support your answer.
Sociologists study social events, interactions, and patterns, and they develop a theory in an attempt to explain why things work as they do. A sociological theory seeks to explain social phenomena. Theories can be used to create a testable proposition, called a hypothesis, about society (Allan 2006). Theories vary in scope depending on the scale of the issues that they are meant to explain. Macro-level theories relate to large-scale issues and large groups of people, while micro-level theories look at very specific relationships between individuals or small groups. Grand theories attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change. Sociological theory is constantly evolving and should never be considered complete…………………………….
Q.5 Critically evaluate the work of Mr. Weber.
This theory is taken as the starting point of all the analytical studies made on the subject of location of plant and office. Weber gave his theory in 1909 which was published in the form of an essay in German and subsequently translated in English in 1929. It was only after 1929 that the modern thinking started.
Salient Features of Weber’s Theory:
The first and perhaps the most important feature of the theory given by Weber is its division into two parts: Pure theory and Realistic theory. Other features of his theory are that it is based on the deductive method and incorporates all those general factors which attract of localize in some areas or regions and ultimately decide the basic location structure of these industries. Through the process of cost analysis, ………………………..