Level: Educational Psychology(6402) Semester: Autumn,2021
Course: ADE/B.Ed (4 year)
Q.1 Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and their educational significance
Research has found that optimal outcomes are achieved by establishing a balance between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation helps students become driven and competitive, while intrinsic motivation supports seeking knowledge for its own sake.
Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards. You do it because it’s enjoyable and interesting, rather than because of an outside incentive or pressure to do it, such as a reward or deadline.
Intrinsic motivation in the study of artificial intelligence and robotics is a mechanism for enabling artificial agents (including robots) to exhibit inherently rewarding behaviours such as exploration and curiosity, grouped under the same term in the study of psychology. Psychologists consider intrinsic motivation in humans to be the drive to perform an activity for inherent satisfaction – just for the fun or challenge of it.
An intelligent agent is intrinsically motivated to act if the information content alone, or the experience resulting from the action, is the motivating factor.
Information content in this context is measured in the information-theoretic sense of quantifying uncertainty. A typical intrinsic motivation is to search for unusual, surprising situations (exploration), in contrast to a typical extrinsic motivation such as the search for food (homeostasis). Extrinsic motivations are typically described in artificial intelligence as task-dependent or goal-directed.
The study of intrinsic motivation in psychology and neuroscience began in the 1950s with some psychologists explaining exploration through drives to manipulate and explore, however, this homeostatic view was criticised by White. An alternative explanation from Berlyne in 1960 was the pursuit of an optimal balance between novelty and familiarity. Festinger described the difference between internal and external view of the world as dissonance that organisms are motivated to reduce. A similar view was expressed in the ’70s by Kagan as the desire to reduce the incompatibility between cognitive structure and experience. In contrast to the idea of optimal incongruity, Deci and Ryan identified in the mid 80’s an intrinsic motivation based on competence and self-determination.
Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external factors such as a reward or avoidance of negative outcomes. Money is the most obvious example of an extrinsic motivation.
xtrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external factors, such as a reward or avoidance of negative outcomes. Money is the most obvious example of an extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation factors can be either tangible and intangible. Tangible factors are factors with a physical form. Any type of financial reward can be an example of a tangible factor. Conversely, intangible factors are abstract in their nature and lack a physical form. Examples of intangible external motivations include fame and praise.
Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are two types of behavior stimulation. Extrinsic motivation is the stimulation of behavior through various external factors. Intrinsic motivation is a behavioral catalyst driven by a desire for personal satisfaction or fulfillment. Note that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation correspond with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Extrinsic motivation coincides with the safety needs in the hierarchy, while intrinsic motivation concurs with esteem and self-actualization needs.
We cannot say that one form of motivation is better than the other. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can effectively impact humans’ behavior and stimulate them to perform certain actions. It is also worth mentioning that the effectiveness of a particular type of motivation may vary among individuals. For example, some people tend to prefer external rewards more, while others put a greater emphasis on personal satisfaction.
Generally, intrinsic motivation is highly regarded as the strongest incentive to achieve long-term objectives. If an individual possesses strong intrinsic motivation, it is very likely that he or she will complete a task. The caveat here is that a person cannot always be intrinsically motivated.
Unlike intrinsic motivation that can drive human behavior only in certain tasks or actions, extrinsic motivation comes with a larger number of potential applications. It is an effective stimulus to motivate a person to do a task he or she was not interested in previously.
Extrinsic Motivation in Organizational Behavior
In organizational behavior, extrinsic motivation plays a crucial role in determining the actions and behavior models of a company’s employees. In every organization or company, employees are extrinsically motivated by the compensation they receive for their work. However, salary is not the single extrinsic motivation factor since many organizations provide many other rewards, such as bonuses, commissions, benefits (e.g., health benefits). We must also acknowledge that intangible extrinsic rewards such as praise and peer recognition are typically presented in many workplaces.
In the workplace, extrinsic rewards can be used to stimulate the interest of employees in tasks in which they are not initially interested. In addition, other sources of motivation typically encourage employees to acquire new knowledge and skills. Finally, the management of a company can use extrinsic rewards as a source of feedback regarding the performance of its employees.
Despite the fact that external rewards are essential to motivate the company’s employees, a company should not rely solely on extrinsic motivation. If the company’s employees possess strong intrinsic motivation, they are likely to remain motivated for longer periods of time. Furthermore, an excess of external motivation may subsequently decrease the employees’ intrinsic motivation.
Therefore, every company or organization must carefully assess their workforce to understand their needs and to determine the optimal mix of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.
Q.2 Prepare a list of methods, techniques and activities you as a teacher, have to imitate for your students’ motivation to learning and also discuss
The teacher-centered approach vs. the student-centered approach. High-tech vs. low-tech approaches to learning. Flipped classrooms, differentiated instruction, inquiry-based learning, personalized learning and more.
Not only are there dozens of teaching methods to explore, it is also important to have a sense for how they often overlap or interrelate. One extremely helpful look at this question is offered by the teacher-focused education website Teach.com.
“Teaching theories can be organized into four categories based on two major parameters: a teacher-centered approach versus a student-centered approach, and high-tech material use versus low-tech material use,” according to the informative Teach.com article, which breaks down a variety of influential teaching methods as follows:
Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning
Teachers serve as instructor/authority figures who deliver knowledge to their students through lectures and direct instruction, and aim to measure the results through testing and assessment. This method is sometimes referred to as “sage on the stage.”
Student-Centered Approach to Learning
Teachers still serve as an authority figure, but may function more as a facilitator or “guide on the side,” as students assume a much more active role in the learning process. In this method, students learn from and are continually assessed on such activities as group projects, student portfolios and class participation.
High-Tech Approach to Learning
From devices like laptops and tablets to using the internet to connect students with information and people from around the world, technology plays an ever-greater role in many of today’s classrooms. In the high-tech approach to learning, teachers utilize many different types of technology to aid students in their classroom learning.
Low-Tech Approach to Learning
Technology obviously comes with pros and cons, and many teachers believe that a low-tech approach better enables them to tailor the educational experience to different types of learners. Additionally, while computer skills are undeniably necessary today, this must be balanced against potential downsides; for example, some would argue that over-reliance on spell check and autocorrect features can inhibit rather than strengthen student spelling and writing skills.
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Diving further into the overlap between different types of teaching methods, here is a closer look at three teacher-centered methods of instruction and five popular student-centered approaches.
Teaching Methods [Teacher-Centered]
Direct Instruction (Low Tech)
Under the direct instruction model — sometimes described as the “traditional” approach to teaching — teachers convey knowledge to their students primarily through lectures and scripted lesson plans, without factoring in student preferences or opportunities for hands-on or other types of learning. This method is also customarily low-tech since it relies on texts and workbooks rather than computers or mobile devices.
Flipped Classrooms (High Tech)
What if students did the “classroom” portion of their learning at home and their “homework” in the classroom? That’s an oversimplified description of the flipped classroom approach, in which students watch or read their lessons on computers at home and then complete assignments and do problem-solving exercises in class.
Kinesthetic Learning (Low Tech)
In the kinesthetic learning model, students perform hands-on physical activities rather than listening to lectures or watching demonstrations. Kinesthetic learning, which values movement and creativity over technological skills, is most commonly used to augment traditional types of instruction — the theory being that requiring students to do, make or create something exercises different learning muscles.
Teaching Methods [Student-Centered]
Differentiated Instruction (Low Tech)
Inspired by the 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), enacted to ensure equal access to public education for all children, differentiated instruction is the practice of developing an understanding of how each student learns best, and then tailoring instruction to meet students’ individual needs.
In some instances, this means Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students with special needs, but today teachers use differentiated instruction to connect with all types of learners by offering options on how students access content, the types of activities they do to master a concept, how student learning is assessed and even how the classroom is set up.
Inquiry-Based Learning (High Tech)
Rather than function as a sole authority figure, in inquiry-based learning teachers offer support and guidance as students work on projects that depend on them taking on a more active and participatory role in their own learning. Different students might participate in different projects, developing their own questions and then conducting research — often using online resources — and then demonstrate the results of their work through self-made videos, web pages or formal presentations.
Expeditionary Learning (Low Tech)
Expeditionary learning is based on the idea that there is considerable educational value in getting students out of the classroom and into the real world. Examples include trips to City Hall or Washington, D.C., to learn about the workings of government, or out into nature to engage in specific study related to the environment. Technology can be used to augment such expeditions, but the primary focus is on getting out into the community for real-world learning experiences.
Personalized Learning (High Tech)
In personalized learning, teachers encourage students to follow personalized, self-directed learning plans that are inspired by their specific interests and skills. Since assessment is also tailored to the individual, students can advance at their own pace, moving forward or spending extra time as needed. Teachers offer some traditional instruction as well as online material, while also continually reviewing student progress and meeting with students to make any needed changes to their learning plans.
Game-Based Learning (High Tech)
Students love games, and considerable progress has been made in the field of game-based learning, which requires students to be problem solvers as they work on quests to accomplish a specific goal. For students, this approach blends targeted learning objectives with the fun of earning points or badges, much like they would in a video game. For teachers, planning this type of activity requires additional time and effort, so many rely on software like Classcraft or 3DGameLab to help students maximize the educational value they receive from within the gamified learning environment.
What About Blended Learning and UDL?
Blended learning is another strategy for teachers looking to introduce flexibility into their classroom. This method relies heavily on technology, with part of the instruction taking place online and part in the classroom via a more traditional approach, often leveraging elements of the flipped classroom approach detailed above. At the heart of blended learning is a philosophy of taking the time to understand each student’s learning style and develop strategies to teach to every learner, by building flexibility and choice into your curriculum.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
UDL incorporates both student-centered learning and the “multiple intelligences theory,” which holds that different learners are wired to learn most effectively in different ways (examples of these “intelligences” include visual-spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, musical, etc.). In practice, this could mean that some students might be working on a writing project while others would be more engaged if they created a play or a movie. UDL emphasizes the idea of teaching to every student, special needs students included, in the general education classroom, creating community and building knowledge through multiple means.
Q.3 Explain the relative importance of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence in children. What are their implications for the teacher?
Heredity is responsible for all the inborn traits, the instincts, emotions, I.Q., reflex action and physical traits. 3. Environment is responsible for the growth and development of the physical, mental and social traits.
The foregoing discussion reveals that both heredity and environment have their share in moulding the life and personality of the individual. But as regards the extent of their influence opinions differ.
- Heredity is responsible for all the inborn traits, the instincts, emotions, I.Q., reflex action and physical traits.
- Environment is responsible for the growth and development of the physical, mental and social traits.
- The two forces heredity and environment are not opposed to each other, but are complementary like seed and soil, ship and current, ‘warp and woof, bed and stream etc. Both of these forces are required for the same purpose. The heredity is the raw material out of which the object is to be prepared, and environment in the technique and other material for the manufacture.
Environment is nothing but a process under suitable conditions to change the shape of raw material just as potter does while making toys of mud. Human behaviour is the product of heredity and environment. Hence both are equally important. The verdict of T. Percy Nunn is nothing short of final:
“Circumstances of life are to men what rocks and winds, and currents are to a ship, merely accidents that make their qualities manifest but have nothing whatever to do with producing them.”
- Interaction of Environment and Heredity:
Human behaviour is determined by interaction of heredity and environment. The individuality of person is characterised by some inborn traits inherited by the person. The task of the environment is to shape these traits in a proper form, to give opportunities for their unfoldment and fulfillment, and to help making improvements. Thus the personality of the individual is a product of heredity and environment.
- Improvement through Environment:
Environment can definitely improve upon the behaviour of a person. Increase the environmental situation, improve its quality, even though the heredity remains constant, the behaviour will improve. It was explained above children brought up in nursery and progressive schools or in good foster homes showed improvement in their intellectual calibre after some time. They were better than those who were brought up in ordinary environment but were initially of the same heredity.
Two individuals of the same heredity might differ when put in dissimilar environments. Again two individuals of differing heredity would probably differ inspite of identical environments. So we can predict that if we change either factor, the product is changed. But Algebra alone will not help us in measuring the quantity of improvement. Detailed investigations are needed for that but roughly we can made an estimate of the changes in the behaviour due to change in either of the factors.
Suppose we have got three children of three different grades of heredity viz., superior, average and low (symbolically put as S, A and L). Suppose there are three grades of the environment also (S, A and L). If the child with superior heredity is put in superior environment, his personality will be highly superior because S x S = S2. If he is put in average environment his personality will be somewhat superior (S x A = SA).
Q.4 Explain the concept of mental health. What factors in the home affect the adjustment and mental health of children. (
Mental health is “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
Mental health is “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Mental health includes subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of one’s intellectual and emotional potential, among others. From the perspectives of positive psychology or holism, mental health may include an individual’s ability to enjoy life and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how one defines “mental health”. Some early signs related health problems are sleep irritation, lack of energy and thinking of harming yourself or others.
Mental health, as defined by the Public Health Agency of Canada, is an individual’s capacity to feel, think, and act in ways to achieve a better quality of life while respecting the personal, social, and cultural boundaries. Impairment of any of these is a risk factor for mental disorders, which are components of mental health. Mental disorders are defined as the health conditions that affect and alters cognitive functioning, emotional responses, and behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. The DSM-5 is used as a classification system of various mental disorders.
Mental health is associated with a number of lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, stress, drug abuse, social connections and interactions. Therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurse practitioners, or family physicians can help manage mental illness with treatments such as therapy, counseling or medication
In the mid-19th century, William Sweetser was the first to coin the term mental hygiene, which can be seen as the precursor to contemporary approaches to work on promoting positive mental health. Isaac Ray, the fourth president of the American Psychiatric Association and one of its founders, further defined mental hygiene as “the art of preserving the mind against all incidents and influences calculated to deteriorate its qualities, impair its energies, or derange its movements”.
In American history, mentally ill patients were thought to be religiously punished. This response persisted through the 1700s, along with inhumane confinement and stigmatization of such individuals. Dorothea Dix (1802–1887) was an important figure in the development of the “mental hygiene” movement. Dix was a school teacher who endeavored to help people with mental disorders and to expose the sub-standard conditions into which they were put. This became known as the “mental hygiene movement”. Before this movement, it was not uncommon that people affected by mental illness would be considerably neglected, often left alone in deplorable conditions without sufficient clothing. From 1840 to 1880, she won over the support of the federal government to set up over 30 state psychiatric hospitals; however, they were understaffed, under-resourced, and were accused of violating human rights.
Emil Kraepelin in 1896 developed the taxonomy of mental disorders which has dominated the field for nearly 80 years. Later, the proposed disease model of abnormality was subjected to analysis and considered normality to be relative to the physical, geographical and cultural aspects of the defining group.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Clifford Beers founded “Mental Health America – National Committee for Mental Hygiene”, after publication of his accounts as a patient in several lunatic asylums, A Mind That Found Itself, in 1908 and opened the first outpatient mental health clinic in the United States.
The mental hygiene movement, similar to the social hygiene movement, had at times been associated with advocating eugenics and sterilization of those considered too mentally deficient to be assisted into productive work and contented family life. In the post-WWII years, references to mental hygiene were gradually replaced by the term ‘mental health’ due to its positive aspect that evolves from the treatment of illness to preventive and promotive areas of healthcare.
Deinstitutionalization and trans institutionalization
When state hospitals were accused of violating human rights, advocates pushed for deinstitutionalization: the replacement of federal mental hospitals for community mental health services. The closure of state-provisioned psychiatric hospitals was enforced by the Community Mental Health Centers Act in 1963 that laid out terms in which only patients who posed an imminent danger to others or themselves could be admitted into state facilities. This was seen as an improvement from previous conditions. However, there remains a debate on the conditions of these community resources.
It has been proven that this transition was beneficial for many patients: there was an increase in overall satisfaction, a better quality of life, more friendships between patients, and not too costly. This proved to be true only in the circumstance that treatment facilities that had enough funding for staff and equipment as well as proper management. However, this idea is a polarizing issue. Critics of deinstitutionalization argue that poor living conditions prevailed, patients were lonely, and they did not acquire proper medical care in these treatment homes. Additionally, patients that were moved from state psychiatric care to nursing and residential homes had deficits in crucial aspects of their treatment. Some cases result in the shift of care from health workers to patients’ families, where they do not have the proper funding or medical expertise to give proper care. On the other hand, patients that are treated in community mental health centers lack sufficient cancer testing, vaccinations, or otherwise regular medical check-ups.
Other critics of state deinstitutionalization argue that this was simply a transition to “trans institutionalization”, or the idea that prisons and state-provisioned hospitals are interdependent. In other words, patients become inmates. This draws on the Penrose Hypothesis of 1939, which theorized that there was an inverse relationship between prisons’ population size and the number of psychiatric hospital beds. This means that populations that require psychiatric mental care will transition between institutions, which in this case, includes state psychiatric hospitals and criminal justice systems. Thus, a decrease in available psychiatric hospital beds occurred at the same time as an increase in inmates. Although some are skeptical that this is due to other external factors, others will reason this conclusion to a lack of empathy for the mentally ill. There is no argument in the social stigmatization of those with mental illnesses, they have been widely marginalized and discriminated against in society. In this source, researchers analyze how most compensation prisoners (detainees who are unable or unwilling to pay a fine for petty crimes) are unemployed, homeless, and with an extraordinarily high degree of mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Compensation prisoners then lose prospective job opportunities, face social marginalization, and lack access to resocialization programs, which ultimately facilitate reoffending. The research sheds light on how the mentally ill—and in this case, the poor—are further punished for certain circumstances that are beyond their control, and that this is a vicious cycle that repeats itself. Thus, prisons embody another state-provisioned mental hospital.
Families of patients, advocates, and mental health professionals still call for the increase in more well-structured community facilities and treatment programs with a higher quality of long-term inpatient resources and care. With this more structured environment, the United States will continue with more access to mental health care and an increase in the overall treatment of the mentally ill.
However, there is still a lack of studies for mental health conditions (MHCs) to raise awareness, knowledge development, and attitude of seeking medical treatment for MHCs in Bangladesh. People in rural areas often seek treatment from the traditional healers and MHCs are sometimes considered a spiritual matter.
Q.5 What is the role of evaluation in the effectiveness of a school guidance program; specify its steps that make it viable?
Evaluation helps to build an educational programmer, assess its achievements and improve upon its effectiveness. It serves as an in-built monitor within the programme to review the progress in learning from time to time. It also provides valuable feedback on the design and the implementation of the programme.
After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Concept of Evaluation 2. Definition of Evaluation 3. Characteristics 4. Steps Involved 5. Purposes and Functions 6. Types 7. Need and Importance.
Concept of Evaluation:
In every walk of life the process of evaluation takes place in one or the other form. If the evaluation process is eliminated from human life then perhaps the aim of life may be lost. It is only through evaluation that one can discriminate between good and bad. The whole cycle of social development revolves around the evaluation process.
In education how much a child has succeeded in his aims, can only be determined through evaluation. Thus there is a close relationship between evaluation and aims.
Education is considered as an investment in human beings in terms of development of human resources, skills, motivation, knowledge and the like. Evaluation helps to build an educational programme, assess its achievements and improve upon its effectiveness.
It serves as an in-built monitor within the programme to review the progress in learning from time to time. It also provides valuable feedback on the design and the implementation of the programme. Thus, evaluation plays a significant role in any educational programme.
Evaluation plays an enormous role in the teaching-learning process. It helps teachers and learners to improve teaching and learning. Evaluation is a continuous process and a periodic exercise.
It helps in forming the values of judgement, educational status, or achievement of student. Evaluation in one form or the other is inevitable in teaching-learning, as in all fields of activity of education judgements need to be made.
In learning, it contributes to formulation of objectives, designing of learning experiences and assessment of learner performance. Besides this, it is very useful to bring improvement in teaching and curriculum. It provides accountability to the society, parents, and to the education system.
Let us discuss its uses briefly:
Evaluation is concerned with assessing the effectiveness of teaching, teaching strategies, methods and techniques. It provides feedback to the teachers about their teaching and the learners about their learning.
The improvement in courses/curricula, texts and teaching materials is brought about with the help of evaluation.
Evaluation provides accountability to society in terms of the demands and requirements of the employment market.
Evaluation mainly manifests itself in a perceived need for regular reporting to parents.
In brief, evaluation is a very important requirement for the education system. It fulfills various purposes in systems of education like quality control in education, selection/entrance to a higher grade or tertiary level.
It also helps one to take decisions about success in specific future activities and provides guidance to further studies and occupation. Some of the educationists view evaluation virtually synonymous with that of learner appraisal, but evaluation has an expanded role.
It plays an effective role in questioning or challenging the objectives.
A simple representation explaining the role of evaluation in the teaching-learning process is shown below:
Evaluation has its four different aspects namely:
(ii) Learning experiences,
(iii) Learner appraisal and the, and
(iv) Relationship between the three.
Definition of Evaluation:
The term evaluation conveys several meanings in education and psychology.
Different authors have different notions of evaluation:
- Encyclopedia of Education Research:
To measure means to observe or determine the magnitude of variate; evaluation means assessment or appraisal.
- James M. Bradfield:
Evaluation is the assignment of symbols to phenomenon, in order to characterise the worth or value of a phenomenon, usually with reference to some social, cultural or scientific standards.
- Gronlund and Linn:
Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives.
Perhaps the most extended definition of evaluation has been supplied by C.E. Beeby (1977), who described evaluation as “the systematic collection and interpretation of evidence leading as a part of process to a judgement of value with a view to action.”
In this definition, there are the following four key elements:
(i) Systematic collection of evidence.
(ii) Its interpretation.
(iii) Judgement of value.
(iv) With a view to action.
Let us discuss the importance of each element in defining evaluation. The first element ‘systematic collection’ implies that whatever information is gathered, should be acquired in a systematic and planned way with some degree of precision.
The second element in Beeby’s definition, ‘interpretation of evidence’, is a critical aspect of the evaluation process. The mere collection of evidence does not by itself constitute evaluation work. The information gathered for the evaluation of an educational programme must be carefully interpreted. Sometimes, un-interpreted evidence is presented to indicate the presence (or absence) of quality in an educational venture.
For example, in a two year programme in computers, it was observed that almost two-third of each entering class failed to complete the two years programme. On closer examination it was found that most of the dropouts after one year were offered good jobs by companies.
The supervisors of companies felt that the one year of training was not only more than adequate for entry and second level positions but provided the foundation for further advancement. Under such circumstances, the dropout rate before programme completion was no indication of programme failure or deficiency.