Course: Education in Pakistan (6506) Semester: Autumn 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
- 1 Discuss the attitude of Muslim rulers towards education. What was the philosophy of education in this period?
Education is one of the most useful and long lasting assets that can be given to children. It is usually passed from one person to another either formally or informally. It usually equips the students with knowledge on how to handle various challenges in life either in work or in the social sphere.
Due to the value attached to it, governments in some countries usually offer it to the citizens free of charge or at subsidized prices. There are rules that govern its undertaking to ensure that it is availed to all and the implementation is smooth. In most developing countries the parents usually pay the fees for their children with minimal or no assistance from the government.
In these countries due to lack of resources, the rates of illiteracy is usually high. Most of the children engage in economic activities and quit school. This paper seeks to compare and contrast how are the attitudes toward education different among students who work to finance their own education and students who do not vary outlining the differences and the reason for their existence.
Students working to finance their education
There are student who usually work to finance their education. These students mainly engage themselves to work while still studying in order to cater for the deficit in their school fees. This arises from the competing needs for school fees, housing fee and general maintenance in the presence of limited funds to cater for them. In the current times, the number of students who work while still undertaking their education is increasing.
This is usually found to have some effects on their academic performance and social life. The effects might be positive or negative depending on the students. In case the students get a well paying job, he might decide to work and put the education on hold. This is usually found to have negative effects on his attitude towards education. This is found to vary between various students and is based on the student’s long term objectives rather than the short term objectives (Moschetti 8).
In the school attendance, students who work to finance their education are sometime inconsistent in attending their classes. These students usually undertake part-time jobs and in times when working hours collide with class time, the usually opt to miss the classes and go to work.
This is usually aimed at maintaining the income source (Wagdarikar et al. 10). They usually spend their free time in covering whatever was covered in their absence. In the case of the students who usually have their fees fully catered for, they are most likely to attend all the classes.
Due to the necessity of having to undertake the class work, this usually makes them improve their attitude towards education. This is mainly due to limited time to cater for the class work. This is not usually the case as some work is obsessive and the student may find him/herself neglecting his academic duty.
Students who participate in work during their studies usually interact with various people. In this interaction they usually learn various aspect of life which they would not have learnt in class. They usually meet various challenges. These challenges usually give them a chance to learn how to solve similar challenges they may encounter in future. This thus implies that their mind develops all way round.
They usually have real life experiences of the class work and are therefore most likely to understand various concepts better. This challenges necessitates the use of knowledge to overcome them and thus can improve the students appreciation for the knowledge and thus improve his attitude towards it. For the students who do not work while studying, they usually face many challenges when they go into the job market due to lack of sufficient exposure in the field in which they were studying.
Leadership is learnt through practice as well observation. When students are working, they usually learn how to handle and manage various issues. These issues require various tactics of handling them and indicate the importance of education in the job market. The other employees usually provide them with guidance incase they are stuck in some issues.
Also they usually learn leadership from senior employees by checking on how they handle various challenging issues. In undertaking their duties, the students may be placed to be in charge of other employees depending on his knowledge and skills. This usually provides a good platform for the development of managerial skills. The managerial skills learnt at work are applied at school and usually have positive results (Williamson 6).
At work place, there is diversity of people. Working students usually have time to learn how to interact and relate with other people. This usually helps them to develop socially. At school there is little possibility of the fellow students changing their social interaction. At work, the people usually change work and the presence of new employees leads to the development of socials skills.
Due to the increased interaction and knowledge, student who work while studying are usually equipped with enough knowledge on the academic reward in the job market. This usually makes them study trying to improve their weak points which could be more rewarding in future. This knowledge helps them in making good choice of the units to study.
Philosophy of education
The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education. The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts may be included. The philosophy of education thus overlaps with the field of education and applied philosophy.
For example, philosophers of education study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice.
In universities, the philosophy of education usually forms part of departments or colleges of education.
Plato’s educational philosophy was grounded in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors. The mind and body were to be considered separate entities. In the dialogues of Phaedo, written in his “middle period” (360 B.C.E.) Plato expressed his distinctive views about the nature of knowledge, reality, and the soul:
When the soul and body are united, then nature orders the soul to rule and govern, and the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine? and which to the mortal? Does not the divine appear…to be that which naturally orders and rules, and the mortal to be that which is subject and servant?
On this premise, Plato advocated removing children from their mothers’ care and raising them as wards of the state, with great care being taken to differentiate children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able. Education would be holistic, including facts, skills, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor.
Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class. He built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class. What this established was essentially a system of selective public education premised on the assumption that an educated minority of the population were, by virtue of their education (and inborn educability), sufficient for healthy governance.
Plato’s writings contain some of the following ideas: Elementary education would be confined to the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training and then by higher education for those who qualified. While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it. Both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual and create a harmonious person.
At the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take an advanced course in mathematics, geometry, astronomy and harmonics. The first course in the scheme of higher education would last for ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science. At the age of 30 there would be another selection; those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysics, logic and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of 50.
- 2 Critically discuss the objective of English Education System in South Asia. What is meant by the death of Persian and how it happened?
Home to almost a quarter of humanity, South Asia is marked by diversity of cultures, geography, and economies. Comprising mostly of middle- and lower-middle-income countries, there are similarities as well as unique features in problems of education and development faced by them. They have responded in multiple, sometimes contrasting, ways to the influence of globalization and in facing up to the challenges of the twenty-first century.
Buffeted by diverse forces, such as climate change and dangers of international terrorism, there is a new level of awareness today in the world including the region about common risks and dangers to humankind which demand collective and global response. A manifestation of this awareness is the formulation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, to be achieved by 2030. The globalization context and the fast pace of economic growth in the region present both new challenges and opportunities. The flow of remittances from the global North to global South, and increasingly intraregion, for example, offers better educational choices for families. Another example is the potentials and challenges of educational application of digital technology, which is inextricably linked to globalization and economic change.
SDG 4, the overarching education goal, demands universal and inclusive participation in quality education up to the secondary level by 2030. Yet, over at least 11 million primary-age and almost 21 million lower secondary-age children in South Asia are not even in school, by recent UIS estimate. Civil society, nongovernmental organizations, and governments need to work together with a shared vision to improve the state of education.
We suggest that the discussion of globalization issues and their implications for education and human resource development lends support to the proposition that quality, equity, and inclusion in education are the critical themes in the exploration of objectives, strategies, and how these can be effectively pursued in educational development in South Asia.
The responsibility for education in South Africa is shared by the Department of Basic Education and the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET). The DBE deals with all schools from Grade R to Grade 12, and adult literacy programmes, while the DHET deals with universities, and other post-school education and training, as well as coordinating the Human Resource Development Strategy for South Africa (HRDSSA).
The DBE develops, maintains and supports a South African school education system for the 21st century in which all citizens have access to lifelong learning, as well as education and training, which will, in turn, contribute towards improving quality of life and building a peaceful, prosperous and democratic South Africa.
The objectives of the DBE are to:
- improve overall educational performance in the long term by increasing the number of five-year-old learners enrolled in publicly funded Grade R classes in public and independent primary schools and community based early childhood development sites from 734 650 in 2011 to 950 000 learners by 2014/15
- reduce the number of illiterate adults in South Africa by 4,7 million by 2015/16 through the KhaRiGude mass literacy campaign.
- increase literacy and contribute to job creation by recruiting and training 41 870 volunteer educators for the KhaRiGude mass literacy campaign in 2014/15.
- improve the learning and teaching of critical foundational skills by developing, printing and distributing literacy/languages, numeracy/ mathematics and English first additional language workbooks to all learners from grades R to 9 each year.
- improve the quality of mathematics, science and technology education in order to increase the number of matric mathematics and science passes at all Dinaledi schools by providing additional learner and teacher support materials as well as additional training for mathematics and science teachers and monitoring the performance and participation of all Dinaledi schools in these subjects over the MTEF period.
- improve the capacity of technical secondary schools to contribute to skills development and training in the country.
- The Persian Empirebelieved in justice. They had strict and careful rules about sentencing a punishment for a crime. No one, they believed, should be executed for a first offense, and every criminal’s good deeds should be considered before handing down judgement. If someone was going to suffer, he should deserve it.
- But if you did deserve it, the Persians made sure you paid for it. They came up with some of the most imaginative and brutal punishments in history. Justice in ancient Persia wasn’t always swift—it was a slow, prolonged, and painful torture torn from your worst nightmares.
- When a Persian judge named Sisamnes was caught accepting a bribe, King Darius was determined to make an example out of him. The courts of Persia, Darius believed, should be impartial and fair. He was going to be sure that Sisamnes’s replacement didn’t make the same mistake.
- Sisamnes was killed, but that was just the start. After his throat had been slit, Darius had the executioners flay off every inch of his skin and make them into strips of human leather. Then he had them sew together a chair made of Sisamnes’s skin.From then on, the new judge would have to sit on a chair made of human flesh.
- It gets worse: Sisamnes’s replacement was his own son. As he presided over Persia’s trials, he would have to spend every day sitting on a chair made of his father’s flesh. Now, King Darius believed, they would have a judge who would never forget what happened if he accepted a bribe.
Persia After the Death of Alexander and
Its Resistance To Hellenistic World
Alexander’s victory at Gaugamela in 331 B.C. was his third and final defeat of the Persia armies of Darius III. A period of drastic political and social upheaval began for the Orient when the Macedonian conqueror, looking for the consolidation of his conquest, settled Greek and Macedonian veterans in the Near East. Hellenic occupation meant the suppression of native rule and traditional kinship. Under Alexander’s successors, Antigonos the One-Eyed, Seleukos, Ptolemy and Lysimachos began development of permanent Hellenic occupation of the region.
Oriental theology about kingship was the Kings were believed to be viceregents of the great high gods, of AhurahMazdah(Zoroastrianism, the supreme creative deity), of Yahweh, or of Marduk(Babylonian religion, the chief of the Babylonian deities), or even to be gods themselves,as in Egypt. The law these kings enforced was divine a therefore, Macedonian and Greek imperialism was an attack on the all-ruling gods of the East.1
The word “Hellenism” is used to cover all the facets of Greek culture, and therefore embraces not only philosophy, drama, and the rational view of life, but also other Greek and Macedonian values. Many Hellenes were deeply concerned with the maintenance of armies, the conduct of economic life, the business of the various departments of Hellenistic monarchies, or the pursuit of high personal status, than with philosophical schools, the theater, or the empirical study of nature and human institutions in areas they occupied. The society of the Hellenistic world was very much diversified and extremely complex, and this was true for the Orientals as well as for the Greeks.2
When Darius III, King of the Medes and Persians, was defeated, killed and his army of once numerous and powerful, had been destroyed or dispersed in the fateful battles of Granikos, at Issos, and near Guagamela, the Persian Empire, which in its day had comprised by far the vastest and wealthiest parts of the ancient world, law in fragments unmourned by its several nationalities. Persia, homeland of the Achaemenids and of the Empire’s satraps, an Empire which once had sent out kings to vanquish most of Asia, had fallen almost without any resistance. Its roads had been run by foreign soldiers, and its palaces had been looted of the treasures that once had flowed in from all the countries under heaven of AhuraMazdah. The capital, Persepolis, had been despoiled, its sacred sculptures insulted and defiled, then burned and destroyed by that very element that was the holy manifestation of the Persian fire-god, Atar.
The ravaging of Persis was inspired by the hatred that had burned in Greek hearts since the days of Cyrus the Great’s conquest of Ionia, a hatred which had been fed by the first Darius’ suppression of the Ionian revolt of 493 B.C. and Xerxes’ subsequent attempt to overrun Hellas itself. All those years the Greeks had felt the heavy burden of feeding the invading host and seeing some of its cities depopulated as a Persian policy against any mass resistance or revolt.3
The burning and destruction of Greek, or Babylonian temples by the Persians did not come out of the conviction that foreign deities were necessarily evil, but because temple spoliation was a source of easy treasure and because diety-kidnapping was universally practiced in the East to undermine the local will, and even the ability to resist. We know that Persians on the other hand sometimes enlarged non-Iranian temples, as in the case of the Temple of Ammon at Hibis in Egypt. Nor did Persians have any objection to specifically Greek rites or Greek religious personnel; for example, when Xerxes captured Athens 480 B.C., he ordered the restored Athenian exiles with him to offer Hellenic-style on the Acropolis.
The Persians never ceased trying to recover the parts of western Anatolia that were taken from them by the Delian League of Greek city-states, nor did the Hellenes ever stop trying to create trouble for Persia in her Egyptian province. Because Persian gold frequently was a force in Greek international politics, the leaders in the city-states and later in Macedonia never were able to escape from a fear of Persian meddling or aggression. Hatred of Persia was kept alive through warfare down to the time of Philip and more than a century’s suffering, humiliation, and dread created in many Greeks a desire for violent revenge, which could hardly fail to color their dealings with the conquered Persians after Alexander.
To many Greek who witnessed the last years of the expiring Achaemenidempire, deceit and cunning seemed to have replaced manliness and courage, and the cares of state to have been abandoned for drunkenness and revelry. Not that a Greek would feel a fine moral shiver at this evidence of decadence; its significance to him was that a hard-bitten adventurer with well-sharpened weapons and under the proper leader could enrich himself without undue risk.4
This picture of Persian weakness acquired the force of authority, a prestige which it retained even after the conquest and down to the time of Strabo.
In Greek eyes, then, the Persian Empire was a place of fabled wealth of gold, silver, splendid horses, of amazing agricultural fertility, all possessed by weaklings. Poverty-ridden as Greeks were, their economy racked of continuing intercity wars, their society threatened by the presence of sporadically employed, hungry mercenary soldiers in the fourth century the Persian empire seemed an object that they with their military and technical superiority could easily convert into a source of booty. Contributing to this feeling was the fact that the Greeks, because of their competence, were holding an increasing number of military and professional posts in the Empire.5
Alexander thought that the empire that he wanted to consolidate could be ruled in peace and no arrogance was needed like some of his generals had suggested. The official treatment of the beaten Persians was by ancient standards remarkably lenient and human. Not only Alexander continued to employ many of the provincial governors in his own administration in Asia, he also behaved according to the customs prescribed for an Achaemenian monarch, recruited noble Persians for his army and gave them high rank and privilege, and undertook to marry his generals to aristocratic ladies of Iran. Alexander’s policy of fusion of East and West found its most impressive expression expression in his celebration at Opis, where Greeks and Persians consummated together a sacrificial communion meal, while Alexander the Idealist prayed that, homonia, a “like-mindedness, concord,” might be created and made to last between his European and Asiatic subjects. Greek seers and Persian magoi(a class of Zoroastria priest in ancient Media and Persia, reputed to possess supernatural powers) together conducted rites to solemnize this attempted marriage of East and West.6
After Alexander’s death, the old prejudices reasserted themselves. For example, out of eighty marriages with Iranian ladies, only one, that of Seleukos and Apama lasted. Seleukos by 312 B.C. had begun the consolidation of an empire that covered most of Asia, including Persia. Many of the Greek immigrants were adventurous and self-reliant types, like Eumenes of Kardia, intent on making new lives for themselves in the conquered East, and determined to grow powerful through royalty to the Macedonian regime, cost what it might to the former overlords of Persia. As a result, however enlightened Seleukos I may have intended his regime in Iran to be, however human many of his officials, like Peukatas of Persepolis, undoubtedly were, still, many of the imperial rights had looked upon their holding positions in the satrapies and hipparchies of Iran as an excuse to grow rich, such men were Kleandros and Polymachos.
Persian resistance to the Macedonians, therefore, never lacked for provocation, and in fact never stopped after the death of Darius. Some of the satraps Alexander had retained in service turned out to be halfhearted in their support of the new regime, and some actually rebellious to it. Those who remained loyal to the idea of native Iranian rule were gradually eliminated and replaced by Europeans. The failure of guerrilla resistance like that of Spitamenes of Sogdiana, however showed the Persians that the immense technical and organization superiority of the Europeans made further attempts at open military resistance as vain as the deployment of the huge armies of the Great king. But if the physical resistance was impossible, religious resistance was not. It was even natural to the ideals of Persian civilization.
Since the existence of a Persian monarchy, preferably Achaemenian, was part of the right order of this world created by AhuraMazdah, hopes for resurrection of a specifically Persian state were in part religiously inspired. AhuraMazdah, like Marduk or Asshur, was an imperial deity who having created the earth, set human beings to rule it as he wanted it ruled. As immortal and beautiful AhuraMazdah continued to live, so did his state continue to survive.
- 3 Comparatively discuss the aims and objectives and salient features of Deoband movement and Aligarh movement.
The time when Shah Waliullah started his educational movement, the Muslims were though only nominally in power, the Muslim education system was in practice. However, the tables that started turning in 1800 A.D., were completely turned after 1857 A.D. Now the British were the rulers of South Asia. They abolished the Muslim educational system and enforced their own. Teacher’s jobs were available only to those who had benefited from their own system of education and had studied English. The Hindus exploited this situation to their advantage. They equipped themselves with modern education and surpassed the Muslims in every field of life. This badly disturbed the foresighted Muslims deals. Some of them held the view that the Muslims must adapt themselves to the new changed circumstances. They should learn English to keep pace with other communities, but the majority stuck to the Islamic heritage and hence opposed the modern system of Education. They were of the firm view that all success here and in the hereafter depended solely on strict adherence to traditional. Islamic values of practices. These Schools of thought were known as the Aligarh Movement and the Deoband Movement. But both these movement could not satisfy many Muslim leaders of bachelors. Hence the advent of two parallel educational systems namely the NudwatulUlama and the JamiaMilliaIslamia. All these four educational movements affected the political life in India. Even after the creation of Pakistan, these movements continue to exist. We can notice their deep impact if we go through the re-construction of the educational system. Now in conclusion let us have a cursory view of these movements.
After reading this unit, you will be able to: · know the history of these four educational movements the special reference to the motivating forces behind each movement and its salient features. ·understand the Muslim outlook towards education during the British rule. ·describe the impact and outcome of these educational movements with regard to their impetus. ·compare and contrast the Muslim educational system with the modern/British educational system. ·discuss these movements as the historical foundation of the modern educational system of Pakistan
- THE DEOBAND MOVEMENT
When the rule changed in South Asia and the English educational system was introduced, the Hindus readily-embraced it, because they were least affected by it. Formerly, they learn Arabic and Persian for worldly gains only. Now they could achieve the same purpose with English. On the contrary, the Muslims resisted it, as to them the new education system would lead the Muslims to secularism and westernization. Therefore, the need of the hour was to preserve traditional Islamic system of education the religious sciences for the coming generations to be reared and brought up according to Islamic teachings, so that they could resist westernization and secularism. For the purpose, the ancient mosque a ‘Chhattah’ in the town of Deoband in U.P. (India) was chosen as the centre, wherein HazaratMautanaMuahammad Qasim Nanautwi resided along with his colleagues. Finally the Maulana setup an academy there on May 30. 1866 A.D. Maulana was a pupil of MaulviMamluk Ali, who was a graduate in Hazarat Shah Waliullah’s School of thought lrand had taken an active part in his Holy Warriors Movement. In this sense, the Deoband School of thought is very much the continuation and succession of Shah Waliuallah’s school of thought. The first head of the Deoband Academy was Maulana Muhammad YaqoobNanautvi and the first student enrolled was Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hassan. The academy was founded as and always remained a totally non-governmental institution. The founder of this academy considered it a means for trust in God and return to Him. As there were no regular financial resources; the Muslims at large were contacted, which helped to introduce the academy far and wide. It also helped in gaining more and more donors and patrons resulting-in promoting it to a great University where the students not only from the country but also from outside were enlisted for religious graduation and scholarship.
Motivating Force behind the Movement
The following motives, incidents and causes gave birth to the Deoband, Movement, namely: a) Revival of Religious Spirit Different religious movements were launched in India for the reformation of religious and collective life of the Muslims of the Sub-continent. These movements also aimed at extermination of innovations in religious thought and restoration of Islamic morality among the Muslims. Hence, the basic underlying idea was the revival of the religious spirit, renaissance of the Islamic thought and preservation and propagation of the religious sciences.
- b) Preaching of Islam The Christian missionaries were endeavouring hard to spread their religion under the patronage of the Government. Therefore, it was essential to train arid create and effective body of Ulama who could promote Islamic education and stop the onslaught of Christianity. So, it was the Deoband Movement which rose, to the occasion. c) Curriculum At the time, the Dars-e-Nizami was in practice in ISLAMIC academies in general. The Ulama, who were inspired by the Shah Sahib’s movement, preferred the Quranic Sciences and Hadith. Therefore, the six books of true Hadith “SihahSittah” were included in the curriculum, Arabic literature and History also won a place in the curriculum. The Deoband curriculum consisted of accent and syntax, Arabic literature; institution of the Holy Quran; Hadith: Philosophy: Scholastic Philosophy: logic: Islamic Jurisprudence: Rhetoric and Rules of Metaphorical Language: Beliefs and Poetic Works, The Prevalent Arts: Phonetics and Calligraphy. For the purpose, different books were made to study. This curriculum of the Dar-ul-Uloom covering Elementary. Secondary, Higher Secondary and Degree classes, was to-be studies in nine years.
Salient Features of This Movement
This great educational movement surpassed others for the following features: a) Balance among different Islamic Educational Concepts in the South Asia The different eminent and well reputed Islamic educational institutions in the Sub-continent had their own separate and distinct entities on account of variations in their respective views regarding works of philosophy and logic; religious branches of knowledge and scholastic philosophy. A successful struggle was put forth to strike a balance in all these three aspects of knowledge and science. As a result, the Deoband represented the collective and overall educational tradition of 4he Muslims.
- b) Preservation of Religious Knowledge
The basic objective of this movement was the preservation of the Islamic religious knowledge and sciences. The movement proved a timely and complete success. It became the centre of gravity for the Muslims of the World with regard to the spread and currency of the Islamic religious sciences. Resultantly, thousands of graduates from this Academy spread all over the world, disseminated the knowledge of religious sciences and thus exterminated secularism and rooted out undesirable religious innovations.
- c) Education in Practical Arts and Crafts
The Deoband started imparting training in different arts and crafts. They taught the science of medicine in particular. They also taught arts of calligraphy, book-binding and weaving cloth. It had in focus the economic and financial problems of the students in particular and of the Muslims in general.
- d) Monetary and administrative aspects
The Deoband enjoyed complete internal autonomy on account of its nongovernmental policy. The contributory contacts with the general public (Muslims) made it known far and wide. Moreover, the simple life style of its students and teachers drew them close to the people. It facilitated mass-training of the people. The administrative affairs were run in line with the islamic principled mutual consultation. In other worlds, the Head of the Academy ran it in accordance with the decisions taken by the Consultative Body.
The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of Western–style scientific education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century. The movement’s name derives from the fact that its core and origins lay in the city of Aligarh in Northern India and, in particular, with the foundation of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875. The founder of the oriental college, and the other educational institutions that developed from it, was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He became the leading light of the wider Aligarh Movement.
The education reform established a base, and an impetus, for the wider Movement: an Indian Muslim renaissance that had profound implications for the religion, the politics, the culture and society of the Indian sub-continent.
The failure of the Revolt of 1857 saw the end of the Mughal empire and the succession of the British. The Muslim society during the post mutiny period was in a deteriorating state. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan found the Muslim society to be educationally, socially and culturally backward. He blamed the prevailing education system for the degrading state of the Muslim society. This led Sir Syed to initiate a movement for the intellectual, educational, social and cultural regeneration of the Muslim society. This movement came to be known as the Aligarh movement after Sir Syed established his school at Aligarh which later became the center of the movement.
The Aligarh Movement introduced a new trend in Urdu literature. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and his association left the old style of writing in the Urdu language, which was rhetorical and academic, and started a simple style which helped Muslims to understand the main purpose of the movement. Sir Syed Ahmed was the central figure behind this awakening..
- 4 Discuss the importance of All Pakistan Education Conference. What were the major recommendations of this conference?
All Pakistan Educational Conference
- The first National Education Conference was held in 1947. The Chairman the Conference set up following Sub-Committees to come up with the recommending guidelines in each sector: a) Scientific Research and Technical Education Committee b) Adult Education Committee c) University Education Committee d) Primary and Secondary Education Committee e) University Education and Primary and Secondary Education f) Women’s Education Committee g) Committee for scheduled caste and backward classes education h) Cultural Relations Committee i) Joint meeting of the committees on the university education, scientific research and technical education and cultural contacts j) Joint meeting of the committees on University Education, Women’s Education and Primary and Secondary Education
- The reports of various committees were submitted for finalization on 29th November, 1947.
- The report was shared in November, 1947.
The Commission on National Education 1959
- The Commission on National Education was appointed by a resolution adopted by the Government of Pakistan on the 30th December, 1958. • The Commission was inaugurated by the President of Pakistan, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, on January 5, 1959. The President asked the Commission to suggest measures for making the best possible uses of its available human and national wealth. In framing its proposals, he asked the commission to keep in mind the limited resources of the country. • An exhaustive questionnaire covering all aspects of education at its various levels and in its various forms was distributed widely to institutions and individuals throughout Pakistan and was also reproduced in the press. • In addition, many individuals voluntarily submitted detailed memoranda concerning particular aspects of the Education System. • During the months of February to April, the Commission met Educationists and leading figures in the then East and West Pakistan and in the then Karachi federal area and discussed with them the needs and problems of Education. From May to August, the Commission discussed and adopted its report. • 8 Members of the Commission gathered to discuss and think together, listened to many points of view and remained involved in sitting recommendations absorbing some into its own corporate thinking. • The Commission invited four distinguished educators to participate in some of its debates. Two of these were Dr. Herman B. Wells, President of Indiana University, • Bloomington, USA, and Dr. John C. Warner, President, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, USA. • Two were eminent Pakistani scholars,–Dr. I. H.Qureshi, Professor of History, and Dr. Abdus Salam, Professor of Applied Mathematics. • It was opined that Education System must compare favorably with other systems. To assist it in making these comparisons, the commission requested a number of people to work as consultants and to prepare documentary evidence and secure data. 2 • The Ford Foundation made consultant services available and provided material assistance. • UNESCO also assisted in securing information on overseas practices and provided services of its Secretariat to the commission. • Educators, representatives of industry and commerce, officers of the civil and defense services and leading personalities of public life, contributed to the commission report. • The report was announced in 1959.
National Education Policy 1979:
- Salient features of National Education Policy were announced, by the Minister for Education in October 1978. These were based on the conference recommendations, opinion and advice of the Ministry and provincial Education Departments. • Further public comments were invited for incorporating valid suggestions. • Many seminars and discussion groups were also organized to examine the policy and formulate suggestions for further improvement. • The suggestions and recommendations made, collectively and individually, were studied in the Ministry of Education. • The Draft work plan of the policy was presented to the Cabinet in December, 1978. • The Cabinet appointed a Standing Committee to examine further aspect after thorough consideration of the provisions of the Work Plan. • The document contained the approved implementation programme of the National Education Policy. • The Policy remained under constant study and examination to accommodate any review or modification that might become necessary • Variousprogrammes were envisaged in the policy. • Policy only gave direction and remained subject to change as and when the situation so demanded. • The Policy was announced in February 1979.
National Education Policy 1998-2010:
- The Prime Minister advised the Ministry of Education to design a new Education Policy in January 1998. • Ministry of Education consulted scholars, administrators, leaders of public opinion and representatives of non- governmental organizations for development of an initial policy draft. • The Cabinet examined the draft in detail and suggested to extend the range of consultations. • Cabinet appointed a sub- committee, to scrutinize the proposals and approved those which could be incorporated in the policy. • The first revised draft was submitted to the Cabinet on 18 February, 1998. • The PM announced the salient features of the policy and led the general discussion. The public was invited to provide a comprehensive feed back to the Ministry of Education. • The Cabinet Committee spelt out the broad outlines for judging eligibility of the proposals to be as part of education policy and appointed a sub-committee to scrutinize these proposals.
- This provided the basis for preparing quarterly agenda for monitoring and evaluation Committees which were headed by the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister of provinces to make strategies and decisions on corrective measures. • The Policy was announced in March 1998
The Education Policy 1972-1980
This policy adopted a muted and value neutral position on Islam and ideology. It envisioned promotion and preservation of ‘Basic ideology’ for national and individual life. It called for building ‘national cohesion by promoting social and cultural harmony compatible with our Basic Ideology through the conscious use of educational process.’ Announced free & universal education up to Class X for both girls & boys. It was to be accomplished in two phases. In the first phase October 1972 all public & private schools to provide free education up to class VIII. Second phase starting 1974, free education extended up to Class X. It anticipated that by 1979 Pakistan would have universal primary education for boys & by 1984 for girls (class V). Examination system was to be revamped & reformed. For teaching aids, Educational Equipment Technical Center, Lahore was to be strengthened and similar centers promised for other provinces. For curriculum revision Committee of chairman of Boards created. Physical training was to be encouraged at Primary & secondary levels. Proportion women teachers at primary level were to be increased. Policy silent on sources of funding & management. Noting the pathetic conditions of higher learning in Pakistan, the policy pointed out that only 2% of our relevant age group was enrolled in universities and institutions of higher learning. It also observed that 80% of students in the universities were in the arts programs and pointed out that there is serious need to increase enrollments in science subjects; it promised an increase of at least 10% per annum in science programs. Called for the establishment of UGC, also proposed greater interaction between inter university Board and UGC. Proposed the establishment of an Open University that would provide education through distance learning and non-formal method. To encourage research, scholarship and talent promised to institute National Professorships. Also promised interest free loans to talented students. Policy adopted a position of benign neglect on medium of instruction. Makes no reference to language. Declared status quo is maintained in religious education. Keep Islamic studies compulsory up to grade 10. New educational radio channels to give more time to recitation of Holy Quran. The policy proposed to bring all curricula inline with ‘Basic Ideology’ (Not defined) of Pakistan. Promised free reading material & textbooks at elementary level; revise curricula & introduce practical& innovative learning /teaching models at secondary & high school levels. Like the 1970 policy called for strengthening the National Curriculum Bureaus & Curriculum centers in the provinces. Produce model & innovative textbooks. The policy advocated that National Book Foundation would be run on commercial bases and Printing Corporation of Pakistan would supplement & support the work of Foundation.
Like the previous three reports/policies, this policy also recognizes that girl child enrollment & co-education need some attention & resolution. This policy asserts that ratio of female teachers at primary level is less then 30%, therefore it recommends that a proportionate increase in the number of female primary teachers will help increase enrollment of girls. It does not see co-education at primary level as an obstacle to girl child education. This policy brought an end to over a decade’s complaining about the private educational institutions as reflected in previous policies, it nationalized the entire private education, except for the religious educational institutions. This marked the beginning of an era of public sector education expansion and over lordship of ministry of education. The policy reflected the growing awareness among the decision makers that illiteracy and adult education needs attention & resources. Promised eradication of illiteracy in the shortest possible time. Proposed the establishment of National Literacy Corps, which was to have core team of trainers to train adults for Literacy Centers nationwide. These were to serve as the lifeline of non-formal adult education program. This policy also supported the general approach of earlier policies of integrating vocational / technical education with general education. However, it proposed two new changes; first, after completing three year diploma course, students would be encouraged to have two years of industrial training. The diploma holders could do one-year of additional courses and obtain B.Tech degree; second, for the first time it drew attention on the handicapped children and announced the formation of Handicapped children’s committee’s in the Education Councils of the provinces. It promised of making special arrangements for the handicapped children in the country’s schools. The nationalization of education needs to be understood in the context of protests of students, school, college and university teachers, who emerge as one of the important support groups of the PPP government. Therefore, revision of pay scales, labor export, youth employment strategies of the government need to be seen in that context. This policy revealed a clear pro-teacher bias – in the sense that at levels it promised to improve service conditions, training & salary structure for the teachers. It nationalized all private & missionary institutions and announced government pay scales for teachers, particularly the college / university teachers were given grade 17 i.e. gazetted grades, while schoolteachers were nogazetted grades. It proposed that the entire policy would be continuously reviewed & evaluated by Education Councils. These Councils would be set up at district, provincial, federal & institutional level. The Councils were to have MNA’s, MPA’s and members of the Local Bodies and the representatives of the teachers unions, student, government departments & other agencies. On the one side the policy promoted democratization and in put of the elected in the education. On other hand, the policy proposed that the recruitment of college/university teachers should be more rigorous. Their recruitment & training should be on the pattern of CSS. To accomplish this, the policy led to the creation of 5 Academy of Educational Planning & Management. The policy laid considerable emphasis on schoolteacher’s training as well. The policy also proposed that 2 members of the Public Service Commission be recruited from the education cadre. District Education Councils were to expedite the recruitment, training and promotions of the school teachers. This policy was a watershed in the history of education &education policies in Pakistan. Building on the 1969 policy Islamic & ideological thrust it advocated not only Islamization of all education but also emphasized that Pakistan be seen in the context of Islamic Ummah. It called for revision of all curricula in conformity with Islamic principles, reorientation of teachers on the basis of Islamic ideology and advocated centrality of mosque and Madrassah education in the life of Pakistanis. Education was to be driven by Islamic precepts & beliefs rather than universalistic principles of Islam that were emphasized by the Quaid-i-Azam &1947- 66 policies.
- 5 Comparatively discuss the major objectives of Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plans. What were the recommendations of Ninth Five Year Plan about community participation in education?
The eighth five-year plan aimed towards modernization of industries. The main objectives of this plan were controlling population growth, poverty reduction, employment generation, strengthening the infrastructure etc. The target growth rate was 5.6% and the actual growth rate was 6.8%. Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002):
Eighth Five-Year Plans (Pakistan)
The Eighth Five-Year Plans for National Economy of Pakistan (or simply regarded as Eighth Five-Year Plans) was a set of a centralized and planned economic goals and targets designed to strengthen the economic development and performance of Pakistan between 1993 and 1998.
The plan was drafted and presented by then people-elected Prime minister Benazir Bhutto at the first session of parliament, as part of social capitalist policies for the improvement of economics development in Pakistan. After the termination of the seventh five-year plans on 30 June 1993, an annual plan was commenced and also integrated with the eighth plan and was finally launched by Benazir Bhutto on 31 May 1994. The framework of the plans and planning was started by Benazir Bhutto after successfully terminating the seventh plan, promulgated in 1988. At an Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) meeting chaired by Benazir Bhutto, the five-year plan was prepared with the consultation of provisional governments and federal bureaus of the government, comprising 28 technical committees that consisted of 2,500 technocrats from joint public and private sector. The plan reflected the initiatives and policy formation of the government in a view to geared up to a dynamic and equitable economic system.
The plan underscored a public-private partnership and gave priority to the empowerment and development of social and power sector, drainage and physical civil infrastructure. The plan did not fulfill all of the objectives of the planned targets, and in 1998, the plan was successfully terminated in a favor of continuing privatization programme of the upcoming people-elected prime minister, Nawaz Sharif.
Eighth Five Year Plan (1993–98)
This group, which included leading industrialists, presidents of chambers of commerce, and senior civil servants, submitted its report in late 1992. However, in early 1994, the eighth plan had not yet been announced, mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short-term issues. Instead, economic policy for FY 1994 was being guided by an annual plan.
From June 2004, the Planning Commission gave a new name to the Five Year Plan – Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF). Thirty two Working Groups then produced the MTDF 2005–2010.
Ninth Five Year Plan:
April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2002 This period saw the change in the government. The Ninth plan was started with an objective of “ Growth with Social Justice and Equality ”. It also assigned importance to agriculture growth.
Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002): This five-year plan gave priority to agriculture and rural development with a view to generating adequate productive employment and eradication of poverty. Along with this, it laid emphasis on the concept of Growth with Justice & Equity. It accelerated the growth rate of the economy with stable prices.
The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) envisaged a GDP growth rate of 6.5 per-cent per annum. The Public Sector Plan outlay was reckoned at Rs. 8,59,200 crore at 1996-97 prices, representing at step up of 48 per-cent and 33 per-cent in real terms over the anticipated plan expenditure and the approved plan outlay respectively of the Eighth Plan. The share of the Center’s Plan and that of the States, including Ut’s, was anticipated to be 57 per-cent and 43 per-cent respectively. Borrowing by States was to constitute 48 per-cent of their Ninth Plan Outlay. The Internal Resources of the State Level Enterprises were also expected to be higher at 4 per-cent of the Plan outlay as against 2 per-cent projected for the Eighth Plan. The State BCR (including Additional Resource Mobilisation – ARM commitment) was expected to improve to become positive during the Ninth Plan.
The following objectives were set out in the Plan :-
(i) Priority to agriculture and rural development with a view to generating adequate productive employment and eradication of poverty;
(ii) Accelerating the growth rate of the economy with stable prices;
(iii) Ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the vulnerable sections of society;
(iv) Providing Basic Minimum Services of safe drinking water, primary health care facilities, universal primary education, shelter and connectivity to all in time-bound manner;
(v) Containing the growth rate of the population;
(vi) Ensuring environmental sustainability of the developmental process through social mobilization and participation of the people at all levels;
(vii) Empowerment of women and socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST/OBC/Minorities) as agents of socio-economic change and development;
(viii) Promoting and developing people’s participatory institutions like Panchayat Raj Institutions, Co-operatives and Self-help groups;
(ix) Strengthening efforts to build self-reliance.
2.2 STATE PLAN OUTLAYS
In Ninth Five Year Plan, the State Government proposed greater emphasis on human development, increasing agricultural production and productivity, development of infrastructure, provision of basic amenities to the population, generating adequate employment and removal of regional/ social disparities during the Ninth Plan period. The approved outlay for the Ninth Plan is Rs. 20,075 crores. Major sector-wise distribution of outlays in the Ninth Plan and Annual Plans are as follows :-
|(Rs. in cores)|
|S.No.||Major Sector||Ninth Plan
|%age to total Plan||%age to approved Annual Plan outlay|
|1||Agriculture & Allied Activities||1129.50||5.63||9.24/ 8.45||8.96||7.33||7.49|
|2||Rural Development||2005.59||9.99||10.38/ 9.54||9.65||8.43||9.78|
|3||Irrigation and Flood Control||2722.02||13.56||13.33/ 17.63||15.49||18.77||18.06|
|5||Industry and Mining||1112.97||5.55||5.70/ 1.97||1.44||1.75||1.24|
|8||General Economic Services||317.53||1.58||1.86/ 1.82||1.92||1.66||1.88|
|9||Social Services||8506.69||42.37||36.36/ 37.66||42.43||34.14||40.12|
|10||General Services||28.12||0.14||0.37/ 0.33||0.22||3.74||0.27|
* Inclusive of part expenditure for undivided MP.
2.3 NINTH PLAN TARGETS
Agriculture and Allied Activities: Food grain, pulses and oilseed production would be of the order of 226.50 lakh tonnes, 43.50 lakh tonnes and 66.15 lakh tonnes, respectively by the end of the Ninth Plan. 55,000 wells would be constructed to create additional irrigation potential for augmenting agricultural production. 10,78,000hact. of land would be covered under the National Watershed Development Programme.
3374 hectares under fruit development and 12,639 hectares under vegetable development would be covered. Propagation of medicinal and aromatic plants would be taken up in 20,000 hectares.
Milk production would be of the order of 5.7 million tonnes, 9 lakh kgs. of wool production and 1500 million eggs by the end of the Ninth Plan. Inland Fish production to reach 1.54 lakh tonnes and fish-seed production would go up to 1000 million standard fry during the plan.
Irrigation : Create additional irrigation potential of 4.45 lakh hectares, under major, medium and minor projects/schemes during the Ninth Plan.
Rural Development: Subsidy will be extended to 3.22 lakh beneficiaries under the IRD programme and 1.72 lakh persons will be trained under TRYSEM. 1783 lakh man days of employment under JRY and 1650 lakh man days under EAS will be provided. 4.66 lakh houses will be constructed under IAY. 1151 milli watersheds will be covered under the watershed development programme.
Energy: 1400 MW of power generation capacity will be added through public investment. 1750 villages, 2500 hamlets, 2500 SC basties will be electrified and 60,000 pump-sets will be energized.
School Education: Open 4752 new primary schools, 2873 new middle schools and create 38,000 additional posts of teachers during the Ninth Plan to cater the anticipated increase of students at the primary and middle stage. 74 lakh illiterates in the age group 15- 35 years would also be targeted under the literacy programme.
Water Supply: Potable water supply will be made available to 450 main habitations, 5000 poorly served habitations, 19100 partially covered habitations, together with piped water supply in 831 villages and 80 towns. Safe water arrangements will be provided in 3800 fluoride affected/polluted villages.
Rural Roads: Construction of missing links in 375 kms of State highways, 214 kms of MDRs, 141 bridges and culverts and connect 385 villages with all-weather roads in the Ninth Plan period.
ANNUAL PLAN 1997-98, 1998-99 & 1999-2000
The approved Annual Plan outlay for the first year of the 9th Plan i.e. 1997-98 was Rs. 3657.22 crore which was later revised to Rs. 2700.00 crore. The actual expenditure was Rs. 3343.91 crore. The actual expenditure on Basic Minimum Services was Rs. 512.95 crore.
The size of the State Annual Plan 1998-99 was fixed at Rs. 3700.00 crore, which was subsequently revised to Rs. 3436.12 crore. The actual expenditure was Rs. 3376.86 crore of which Rs. 506.08 crore was on Basic Minimum Services.
The Annual Plan outlay for 1999-2000 was fixed at Rs. 4004.00 crores. The actual expenditure was Rs. 3589.17 crores of which 614.62 crores was on Basic Minimum Services.
The size of Annual Plan 2000-2001 was initially fixed at Rs. 4550.00 crores. But after bifurcation of the state on 1.11.2000, the outlay proposed for the successor state of MP (inclusive of expenditure upto 31.10.2001) was Rs. 3303.58 crores. The actual expenditure was 3174.93 crores, of which Rs682.74 crores was on Basic Minimum Services.
RELEVANT PHYSICAL TARGET/ACHIEVEMENTS DURING 1997-98, 1998-99 AND 1999-2000
Agriculture & Allied Activities: During the year 1997-98, because of bad climatic conditions food grains, pulses and oil seeds, production went down to 173.12 lakh tonnes, 32.54 lakh tonnes and 57.93 lakh tonnes respectively. During 1998-99 the production was 204.07 lakh tonnes, 38.05 lakh tonnes and 56.86 lakh tonnes respectively. During 1999-2000 cereals, pulses and oil seeds production was of the order of 172.19 lakh tonnes, 37.93 lakh tonnes and 55.91 lakh tonnes respectively. Seed production & distribution during the year 1997-98 was 667.5 thousand quintals and 536.01 thousand quintals respectively whereas in 1998-99 it was 584.1 thousand quintals and 624.8 thousand quintals respectively. During 1999-2000 the total seed distribution was 555.83 thousand quintals. Fertilizers distribution reached 12.25 lakh tonnes of NPK in 1998-99 and 12.01 in 1999-2000. During 1998-99, 5374 tube wells, 8402 sprinkler sets and in 1999-2000, 3497 tube wells and 13865 sprinkler sets were constructed/distributed. In 1998-99, 9 small tanks/ 2 stop dams and in 1999-2000, 22 micro-minor irrigation works were constructed. During the year 1997-98, 1.00 lakh hact. land was covered under National Watershed Programme, 2.06 lakh hact. in 1998-99 and 0.90 lakh hact. in 1999-2000.
During 1997-98, 35857 hact. area was covered under intensive fruit development programme and 46005 hact. area was covered during 1998-99. Production of vegetable around big cities and medical/aromatic plants was taken-up in 6811 hact./ 52 hact. in 1997-98. In 1998-99 the coverage was 2976 hact. and 30 hact. respectively. In 1999-2000, 46787 hect covered under intensive fruit development programme, 2325 hectares under vegetable development around big cities, 310 hact. under medicinal and aromatic plants. 79.25 lakh plants were distributed for establishment of new garden & nurseries.
Rural Development: During 1997-98, 1.39 lakh families were provided loan/subsidy amounting to Rs. 300.44 crores under IRDP and 14125 rural youths were trained under TRYSEM. 470.56 lakh man days and 596.87 lakh mandays employment was generated under JRY and EAS respectively and 1.02 lakh houses were constructed under IAY. During 1998-99, 12,090 youths were trained under TRYSEM and 339.34 lakh man days employment was generated under JRY and 1.02 lakh families were benefited under IAY.
During 1999-2000, Govt. of India re-structured the ongoing programmes of rural development and a new programmes SJGSY – “Swarn Jayanti Gram SwarojgarYojna” has been evolved by combining the existing IRDP, TRYSEM, improved tool kit supply, Ganga KalyanYojna, JiwanDhara and DWCRA schemes. Similarly, Existing JRY has been re-structured as JGSY – Jawahar Gram SamridhiYojna, to be implemented through Gram Panchayat. During 1999-2000 about 288.90 lakh man days employment was generated under EAS and 58512 beneficiaries were benefited under SJGSY. 265.27 lakh man days employment was generated through JGSY. Under the re-structured Indira AwasYojna scheme, conversion of 13798 kachha house to puckka houses and construction of 77886 new houses were achieved during 1999-2000.
Irrigation: During 1997-98, 44.8 thousand hact. additional irrigation potential was created. An additional 30.60 thousand hectares was covered during 1998-99 under major/ medium and minor irrigation projects/ schemes. 26.9 thousand hectares additional irrigation potential was created by Irrigation Department through major, medium & minor projects in 1999-2000 and additional irrigation potential about 600 hectares was created by NVDA through Rani Awanti Bai Sagar Project.
Energy: During 1997-98, 463 villages, 790 majra/tolas, 427 SC basties were electrified and 56 thousand pump-sets were energized. In 1998-99, 3000 villages, 2493 majra/tolas, 622 SC basties were electrified and 46 thousand pump sets energized and in 1999-2000, 264 villages, 2232 majra/totals and 264 SC basties were electrified and 21632 pump sets were energized.