Q.1 Discuss different activities which make socialized recitation method effective. Highlight the role of a teachering this method?
According to Yoakam and Simpson, a socialised recitation technique or discussion method is the one wherein “Children are discussing, questioning, reporting, and working in natural ways.
The teacher is a guide, counselor, advisor, contributor and director in the best sense of the word, trying to get children discover things by themselves rather than to have them by merely listening to them.”
It is a technique of teaching in which a friendly spirit of cooperation prevails. Children discuss the various social, economic, cultural, political and moral problems and discover for themselves the real meaning and significance of these.
Discussion is one of the most valuable techniques in the teaching of history. It aims at finding the solution of a problem through the establishment of agreement or consensus. Discussion is a sharing and weighing of the sides: which are as many as there are conflicting interests and opinions. It is a process of collective decision making. It seeks agreement, but if it is not reached, it has the value of clarifying the nature of disagreement.
Discussion as a method of teaching history may be used for the following purposes:
- For preparing plans for new work.
- For making decisions concerning future action.
- For sharing information and reaching a collective decision.
- For tolerating and obtaining respect for various points of view.
- For clarifying ideas and concepts.
- For inspiring interest.
- For evaluating progress.
- For stimulating thinking.
- To minimize the social distance between the teacher and the students.
- To provide training for collective decision-making.
Discussion may be informal or it may assume some such form as debates, a symposium or a panel discussion. Any one of these forms can be profitably adopted.
Procedure of the Discussion
The procedure of Discussion may be divided into the following three steps :
- Preparation for Discussion.
- Conduct of Discussion.
- Evaluation of Discussion.
Preparation for Discussion
To conduct the discussion properly and effectively, thorough preparation for the same is a pre- requisite. The topic of discussion may be decided upon and the students may be provided with the names of the reference books and other reading-material from which the students may read the relevant material in order to take part effectively in the discussion.
Conduct of Discussion
This implies holding the discussion in a successful manner. The discussion should be systematic and disciplined. The arrangement of seats should be such as to permit face-to-face conversation. The teacher should see that everybody cooperates and takes part in the discussion. A few students should not be allowed to dominate the discussion. The discussion must result in some sort of an agreement.
Evaluation of Discussion
After the discussion, the main arguments raised during the discussion must be summed up. The advantages and the limitations must be thoroughly weighed and evaluated. The outcomes of the discussion must be properly assessed, and lessons and guidelines must be drawn to make the discussion more effective and successful in future.
Role of the Teacher
The success of Discussion Method depends greatly on the teacher who is supposed to be a guide-cum-counselor-cum-advisor. He should ensure that every student participates actively in the discussion, and makes his own contribution for the solution of the problem under discussion. He is also to maintain proper discipline, and see that the students should not go away from the topic under discussion.
The teacher is the leader of the discussion and must guide the students without using his authority. He should see that the discussion is a cooperative experience, not a competitive quarrel. He must discourage any personal attacks and must seek to bring the participants to focus their comments on the proposition and not on the person. The teacher is responsible for retaining control of the class and is responsible for seeing that the discussion makes progress. Thus, the success of Discussion Method mostly depends upon the teacher.
Q.2 Discuss the role of Pakistan studies teacher in social integration. Elaborate your response with examples.
Since 1947, Pakistan has observed more than 15 education policy regimes directing
education improvement in the country. Each policy has been ambitious in its aims and
critical of past failures. ‘A common feature of all policies, plans, programs, and
schemes is that all of them, with the sole exception of the Second Five Year Plan,
failed to achieve their objectives’ (Mitchell, Salman and Mujaffar 2005). Even large
injections of international resources have been unsuccessful in significantly changing
Pakistan’s education sector. For instance, despite Rs. 327 billion spent under the
Social Action Program in the 1990s, enrollment rates decreased.
Over the years, the basic features of various education policies have remained the
same, with every new policy adding to the objectives of the previous ones. Major
policies governing teacher education were first articulated in the National Education
Policy of 1992. Salient features of this Policy include: universalizing primary education by 2002;
raising the literacy ratio to 70 percent by the year 2002; tackling women’s education
and the education of the poor through special programs; improving quality by
reasserting teachers role in the teacher-learning process (the quality of instruction
would be raised through an extensive in-service teachers’ training program), by
modernizing curricula and text books, by improving physical facilities, and by
introducing activity oriented computer sciences at all levels of school education. The NEP 1998-2010 contains six objectives and sixteen strategic actions. The
objectives of this Policy include:
- To create a matching relationship between the demand and supply of teachers;
- To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators;
- To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programs by introducing
parallel programs of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels;
- To make the teaching profession attractive for young talented graduates, by
institutionalizing a package of incentives;
- To develop a viable framework for policy planning and development of inservice and pre-service teacher education programs; and
- To provide for management training of educational administrators at various
levels (Ministry of Education 1998).
The Policy undertakes a thorough assessment of teacher education issues and
proposes corrective measures. Several of the identified issues remain valid since
teachers are considered the lynchpin for quality and implementation of reforms in the
classrooms (Jamil 2004). International Development Partners have suggested that
once a national framework of policy principles and priorities is agreed and communicated, the lower tiers of government should consider how their current
strategies, plans, and programs reflect this framework and identify if any adjustments
are required. The approach would result in a regulated rather than a controlling
national policy framework (GoP, National Education Policy Review 2006).
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), launched in 2003, also provides a
policy framework for education reforms. The PRSP recognizes that ‘education is
probably the most significant factor characterizing the difference between poor and
non-poor households’. In the 2003 Partners in Progress Pakistan Development Forum,
the Prime Minister stated, ‘We are conscious of the fact that education is our primary
responsibility, and especially girls’ education. We shall employ all available resources
to give effect to our plan’ (Ministry of Education 2003). All discussions related to quality in different policies are directly associated with teacher capability, the relevance of curricula, assessment systems, pedagogical methods, teaching environment, and materials. A key criticism of teacher education, especially in the public sector, is that it has not resulted in enhancement in student learning outcomes proportionate to the degree of expenditures that have been
allocated to in-service trainings. However, teacher education should not be viewed as
the only explanatory variable for student outcomes. Although, there are provisions in
various policy documents on TPD, there is a lack of a comprehensive vision and
policy on TPD to elevate teaching into a full-fledged professional status. A social
dialogue, which would systematically involve teachers, experts, and teacher
organizations in policy making is non-existent (Jamil 2004).
In recent years, the provincial governments have undertaken significant education
sector reforms, focusing on improving the quality of education and therefore, TPD.
The Federal Ministry of Education has recently initiated a process of Federal-InterProvincial Development of Education Policy and Planning. Dialogue between the
provinces and the federal government has been initiated through Inter-provincial
Education Ministers’ and Inter-provincial Education secretaries’ meetings in 2005.
They have jointly agreed to review the existing National Education Policy and prepare
provincial sector plans for education. The provincial sector plans will be integrated
with the agreed framework at the federal level. Ownership of these sector plans shall
be expressed at the provincial level through high level political commitment to the
sector plans (via cabinet approvals). A description of the provincial on-going and
planned TPD policy reforms is provided below. Punjab is the first province to significantly reallocate public expenditures toward education. The Government of Punjab developed the Punjab Education Sector Reform Program (PESRP) Strategy for the period of 2003-06. Key pillars of the PESRP are: (a) public finance reforms to increase public spending for education and to ensure fiscal sustainability; (b) reforms that strengthen devolution and improve the fiduciary environment and governance; and (c) education sector reforms to improve quality,
access and sector governance. To increase the quality of education services, the Government of Punjab intends to provide high quality and more relevant teacher
training. The education reform program in Punjab is closely linked to the three national level initiatives of the National ESR Program, National PRSP, and national
devolution plan (World Bank, “Proposed Education Credit Punjab” 2004).
The Punjab Government recognizes the need to improve the quality of education to
complement the improvements made in enhancing access to education.
Implementation progress in this area, specifically in TPD, was slower than in other
reform initiatives of the Program. During the first program year, Government efforts
rightly focused on developing a comprehensive framework for the professional
development of teachers rather than only implementing new training programs. The
Directorate of Staff Development (DSD) has now become fully functional, and it has
finalized the Professional Development Framework, which gives the direction for
teacher training programs. Teacher training and ongoing follow up support for
primary school teachers has been initiated. The programs for classroom based support,
especially for least qualified primary school teachers have been finalized. Progress in
assessing student-learning achievement has also been slow, making it difficult to
assess quality improvements in student learning in the absence of a province-specific
baseline. This baseline has now been established through National Education
Assessment System (NEAS). There has been better than anticipated progress in
improving the quality of teaching materials through the reforms underway in textbook
The Government has taken the following actions to improve the quality of teaching:
(i) placed emphasis on in-service training of teachers by focusing on the professional
development of the teaching and education management staff through the restructured
DSD; (ii) developed a framework and action plan for TPD; and (iii) under the NEAS,
established a system of ongoing student assessments. The first pilot assessment of
grade IV students in language and mathematics has been completed. The Government
is striving to improve the quality of teaching materials by opening up textbook
development to competition. The quality of textbooks is being improved by: (i)
awarding textbook development contracts through a transparent and competitive
process, with authors external to the Textbook Board selected by an independent
selection committee established for this purpose; (ii) opening textbook printing and
publishing to competition, beginning with the Kindergarten primer; and (iii)
establishing standards for textbook paper quality, and improving the graphics and
printing quality of textbooks starting with textbooks for Classes 6-8, which was to be
ready for distribution at the start of the academic year in April 2005.
For improving teacher quality, an action plan for the restructured DSD, based on the
framework for TPD, has been approved. Progress under this action plan includes: (i)
developing in-school support networks, including creating clusters; (ii) preparation of
lead and district level trainers for training primary school teachers, and a quality
assurance mechanism for this training; (iii) preparation of lead trainers for head
teacher training and support; (iv) initiating review of all teacher training materials through the establishment of a materials review group; (v) establishment for a
materials development group for developing materials, especially for English
language teaching for primary school teachers; and (vi) development of the teacher
training database to take stock of all teacher training and competencies. Private sector
service providers are being contracted to undertake training of Lead Trainers. A
framework for teachers’ Continuous Professional Development (CPD) has been
approved. Teacher training has commenced in 11 districts, and almost 500 District
Teacher Educators have been trained. Over 11,000 teachers have been provided
Q.3 How can be library resources utilized in teaching Pakistan Studies? Discuss the preparation of no cost or low cost instructional materials in teaching of Pakistan Studies.
A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of instructional materials that meet the needs of students and fit the constraints of the teaching and learning environment. There are many pressures for educators to match the audiovisual stimuli of television, computers, and electronic games with which students are experienced. The speed of personal computers and the ease of authoring systems permit instructors to design and customize computer-based audiovisual presentations and to develop computer-based assignments for their students. The tremendous increases in rates of information transfer, access to the Internet, and posting of materials on the World Wide Web give instructors and students an almost limitless supply of resource material. In addition, the ease of electronic communications between an instructor and students, and among students, provides new opportunities for sharing questions, answers, and discussions during a course. At the same time, there remains a major role for student use of textbooks and for instructional use of demonstrations, films, videos, slides, and overhead transparencies.
Carefully scripted presentations and activities run the risk of emphasizing teacher delivery rather than student learning. Carefully planned and prepared instructional resources sometimes tempt instructors to race ahead and to cover more. The rapid-fire presentations combined with audiovisual overload can tempt students to remain intellectually passive. One way to avoid this is to intersperse activities which assess student understanding and encourage reflection and critical thinking. Another possibility is to reduce the pace of the class session, by pausing periodically to invite questions.
Books are a highly portable form of information and can be accessed when, where, and at whatever rate and level of detail the reader desires. Research indicates that, for many people, visual processing (i.e., reading) is faster than auditory processing (i.e., listening to lectures), making textbooks a very effective resource (McKeachie, 1994). Reading can be done slowly, accompanied by extensive note taking, or it can be done rapidly, by skimming and skipping. There are advantages to both styles, and you may find it useful to discuss their merits with your students.
|Issues to Consider When Selecting Instructional Resources
One important aspect of any science class is helping the student to make sense of the mass of information and ideas in a field. This can be done by showing students how to arrange information in a meaningful hierarchy of related major and minor concepts. Well-chosen textbooks help students understand how information and ideas can be organized.
Textbooks have several major limitations. Although a well-written book can engage and hold student interest, it is not inherently interactive. However, if students are encouraged to ask questions while they read, seek answers within the text, and identify other sources to explore ideas not contained in the text, they will become active readers and gain the maximum benefit from their textbook. In order to meet the needs of a broad audience, texts are often so thick that they overwhelm students seeking key information. Texts are often forced to rely on historical or dated examples, and they rarely give a sense of the discovery aspects and disorganization of information facing modern researchers.
Science textbooks have evolved considerably from the descriptive and historical approaches common before World War II. Today’s texts are far more sophisticated, less historical, and contain more facts than in the past, with complex language and terminology (Bailar, 1993). Illustrations and mathematical expressions are more common. Emphasis has shifted toward principles and theory. Modern texts attempt to deal with issues of process as well as matters of fact or content. They are replete with essays, sidebars, diagrams, illustrations, worked examples, and problems and questions at many different levels. One result of these changes is that the average book length has increased two to four times in the past several decades.
In response to the need for quality science textbooks for all students, not just science majors, some authors are returning to descriptive and historical approaches. Generally, books for science literacy courses describe important ideas and discoveries, present a limited number of fundamental concepts, and emphasize the links among different facts and principles. Others (e.g., Trefil and Hazen, 1995) take an interdisciplinary approach, by covering a range of science disciplines in a coherent, connected manner.
Many users of the library see it as a place where books and other materials are kept and made available for use. Generally, a library can be defined as an institution responsible for the acquisition, organization and storage of recorded knowledge in various media for study, research and consultation. Contemporary libraries maintain collections that include not only printed materials such as manuscripts, books, newspapers, magazines, journals government documents, abstracts indexes and grey literature such as projects, but also art reproductions, films, sound and video recordings, maps. Photographs, microfiches, CD-ROMs computer software, online resources such as databases e-journals, e-books and other media. Libraries provide people with access to the information they need to work, play, learn and govern. Because no single library can contain the information sought by every potential user, different types of libraries exist to serve different users. Libraries fall in several categories which includes National, public, academic, school, special and private libraries. Each type of library develops its mission statement, collections, services and facilities to satisfy the needs of its particular clientele. However, this research will focus mainly on school libraries as it most concerns the present study. School libraries are libraries that are set up in nursery, primary and secondary school to cater for the teaching and learning needs of the pupils, student and their teachers. They provide printed and non-printed materials to facilitate learning. (Shidi, Aju and Ashaver in Aju and Karim, 2014). School libraries in the educational institution s such as pre-primary, primary and secondary schools are important to the life wire and foundational up-bringing of children. This is because they primary stock materials that are of interest and developmental growth for young teenagers and youths of the era (Rasaq, 2000; Edeghere, 2001). School libraries are known as learning laboratory for the school. They provide the total learning package required by the students and their teachers. They exist to provide a range of learning opportunities for both large and small groups as well as individuals with a focus on intellectual content, information literacy and the learner (Morris, 2004). School library resources refer to the equipment and other instructional and study materials in the school library meant for teaching and learning. School library facilities also serve as instructional materials for teaching/learning. Arua and Chinaka (2011) state that school library information facilities are seen as all inputs which are utilized in the library in order to provide good learning environment for students and teachers so as to achieve educational goals. The school library in addition to doing the vital work of individual reading, guidance and development of school curriculum, it serves the school as a center for instructional materials. Instructional materials include books, the literature for children, young people and adults, other printed materials, films, recordings and other latest media developed to aid learning. The function of an instructional material center is to locate, gather, provide and co-ordinate schools materials for learning and the equipment required for use of these materials. Also, Robin (2005) confirmed that any high school without an efficient and effective library is comparable to a car without engine. Motivation in view of the above, issues that have to do with educational standards cannot be properly addressed in isolation of the school library. Availability of library resources in the context of this study means the presence of information or reading materials that can be easily obtained or used by the readers. Availability of library resources according to Aguolu & Aguolu (2002) refers to the physical presence of information resources within the library. Such resources according to the author include books, journals, dictionaries, encyclopedia, internet facilities, dissertations, audio visual materials and government documents.
Q.4 Prepare a four satage lesson plan on “Khilafat Movement”.
Stage 1: Introduction
The Khilafat movement was a very important event in the political history of India. The Muslims of India had a great regard for the Khilafat (Caliphate) which was held by the Ottoman Empire. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the war in favour of Germany. But Turkey and Germany lost the war and a pact commonly known as Istanbul Accord was concluded between the Allied Forces on 3rd November 1918. According to this Pact the territories of Turkey were to be divided among France, Greece and Britain.
During the war the Indian Muslims were in a very awkward position, because they had a deep-rooted devotion to the caliphate. They had profound respect for this holy institution. Therefore, their support to the British Government was subject to the safeguard and protection of the holy places of Turkey and on the condition that Turkey will not to be deprived of its territories. But the British Government could not fulfill both of these promises. The Treaty of Savers 1920 was imposed on Turkey and its territories like Samarna, Thrace and Anatolia were wrested from it and distributed among European countries. A wave of anger swept across the Muslin World and the Indian Muslims rose against the British Government. Muslim leaders like Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Moulana Shoukat Ali and others reacted against the British Government policy and were put behind the bars.
Stage 2: Aims
Thus, Muslims organized a mass movement, which came to be known as Khilafat Movement. The aims of this movement were
(a) To protect the Holy place of Turkey
(b) To restore the Territories of Turkey
(c) To restore the Ottoman Empire.
In December 1919 both the Khilafat Committee and Congress held their meetings simultaneously at Amritsar and a delegation was prepared which was sent to England under the leadership of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar to see the British Prime Minister, Cabinet Member and Members of Parliament and to explain the Indian point of view regarding the Khilafat. The delegation visited England in 1920. The leaders of the delegation addressed the House of Commons and saw the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George who paid no heed to the delegations demand. The delegation stayed at London for eight months and won many hearts and sympathies of people in Britain delivering speeches. However, the delegation returned to India unsuccessful in October 1920.
After the unsuccessful visit to England the leaders of Khilafat Movement realized the fact that British were not in the mood to help them. Therefore, they realized that a new strategy needed to be adopted in order to reinvigorate the zest and zeal for freedom among a general populace. With this aim they decided to launch a movement of Non Co-operation. When the leaders of Khilafat movement announced the Non Co-operation Movement, the Congress extended its full support to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Gandhi. The agitation was against the British government. The Jamiat-ul-Ulama Hind issued a Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat.
Stage 3: Principle
The following points were included in it:
- Renunciation of all Government titles.
- Boycott of legislature and court.
- Withdrawal of student’s from educational institutions.
- Resignation from government posts.
- General civil disobedience.
As a result of this proclamation of fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles and stopped sending their children to government schools and colleges. All those highly educated young men who could have rose to high government positions bade farewell to their bright future and accepted ordinary jobs in the private sector. The vacuum created in government offices was joyfully filled in by Hindus, while the Muslim government employees willingly accepted starvation for the sake of the Muslim cause.
Under the hypnotism of Mr. Gandhi, Muslim ulama had issued a verdict and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab and the Muslims therefore needed to migrate to some other country or Dar-ul-Salam. Thousands of families sold out their properties for a tenth of their value and hastily left for Afghanistan, in August 1920. As many as eighteen thousand people marched towards Afghanistan, which was unable to bear the influx of the people. Thus, the Afghan authorities closed their frontiers. Eventually the Muhajarins had to return to their homes. A great number of old man, women and children died on their way during returning to homes and those who luckily reach alive their former places. They found themselves homeless and penniless. In fact they faced great difficulties. Even the preachers of Khilafat Movement realized the fact.
In January 1921, nearly three thousands students of various colleges and schools boycotted their classes and a number of teachers most of them were Muslims tendered their resignation. The Movement became so powerful that the Government was obliged to pay attention to the problem. The British Government invited Seth Jan-Muhammad Chutani, the President of Khilafat conference to visit London to discuss the issue. A delegation under has leadership visited London and discussed the sentiment of Muslims but the delegation also returned unsuccessfully.
The Khilafat Movement came to an end when thousands of Indians were put behind the bar. The leaders in spite of their best efforts could not maintain the Hindu-Muslim Unity. One of the main reasons which caused a death blow to Khilafat Movement was the indirect announcement of Gandhi to discontinue the Non Co-operation Movement. Gandhi used an incident of arson on February 1922, when a violent mob set on fire a police choki at Chora Churi at district Gorakpur, burning twenty one constables to death as an excuse to call off the non-cooperation movement. It adversely affected the Khilafat Movement which thought to be integral part of movement. In 1924, Kamal Ataturk set up a government on democratic basis in Turkey by abolishing Khilafat as a system of government which served a finishing blow to Khilafat Movement in India and people had lost whatever interest that they had in the movement.
Failure of the Movement:
The abolition of Khilafat by Kamal Ataturk was a serious blow on Khilafat movement in the sub-continent and he exiled Sultan Abdul Majeed, a helpless Caliph and abolished Khilafat as an institution, due to this all agitational activities came to an end in the Sub-continent.
The Hijrat Movement made the Muslims disillusioned with the Khilafat Movement due to the declaration of India as Darul-Harab. A large number of Muslims migrated from Sindh and N.W.F.P to Afghanistan. The Afghan authorities did not allow them to cross the border. After this tragic event those who had advocated the Hijrat movement come to realize their mistake which resulted in failure of movement.
When Khilafat movement became mature and was reaching its climax. A tragic incident took place in the village of Chora Churi in which the police opened fire on the procession of local resident. The agitated mob in counteraction set the police station on fires which in result twenty one police constables were burnt alive. Due to this incident the Ali brother and other Muslim leader were arrested and Mr. Gandhi put off the movement. As a consequence the movement lost its intensity.
Stage 4: Conclusion
The Khilafat movement was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey, an issue which essentially belonged to the Muslims. By the involvement of Hindus the Movement grew forceful and there was possibility of meeting the movement with success. The British Government was the common enemy of the Muslims and Hindus. That is why, both the nations continued united efforts against it. But the difference between the Hindus and Muslims became even more pronounced and many other events showed that the opposition of Hindus to British Government was not lasting. When Khilafat Movement reached at its success, the Hindus especially Mr. Gandhi gave up from movement and leaved the Muslims alone and caused the failure of Movement.
The Khilafat movement proved that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations as they could not continue the unity and could not live together. The Khilafat Movement created political consciousness among the Indian Muslims, which inspired them to constitute another movement for then Independence. Thus, they started Pakistan Movement.
Q.5 Critically analyze easy and objective type tests in teaching of Pakistan Studies. Which type of test is more appropriate and why?
A good teacher not only intellectually challenges students in concept understating, but also supports the students in their generating knowledge on the basis of learn material. ” Teachers act as facilitators or coaches, using interactive discussions and “hands-on” learning to help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science, mathematics, or English. As teachers move away from the traditional repetitive drill approaches and rote memorisation, they are using more “props” or “manipulatives” to help children understand abstract concepts, solve problems, and develop critical thought processes ” (BLS, 2009). For the process of teaching-learning some terms like teaching strategies, teaching methods and teaching techniques are often use synonymously. In fact there is difference between the three terms. Teaching strategies are used for achieving specific teaching objectives. Teaching techniques are teaching tactics used by teacher during any teaching methods. Difference between teaching method and teaching strategy is that teaching method involves only presentation of learning content. Whereas teaching strategy involves educational philosophy to be followed, objectives that to achieved, learning principles on which learning is based, constructing desired activities needed for achieving teaching objectives, and tactics for providing motivation and feedback for learners. Hence teaching strategy has broad scope than teaching method or teaching technique. Just as there are too many people to learn likewise there are too many strategies to teach. It is the teacher who decides which teaching strategy is the best for achieving specific objectives and needs of the lesson. The researcher traced out following some teaching strategies from literature review in the shape of internet exploring, reading books, articles encyclopedias and other literature available in the area of teaching strategies that are generally used teaching students of secondary level. In Pakistan studies is taught as a compulsory subject from secondary to bachelor level in Pakistan. The researcher has been herself teaching this subject for a long time and had observed other teachers of Pakistan studies teaching this subject. However, the researcher decided to find out what the real situation in the field is? Keeping in view the situation the researcher decided to conduct a research study to find out the teaching methods being used by teachers for teaching of Pakistan studies. Generllay according to the nation curriculum for Pakistan studies 2006 the following teaching strategies has been suggested for teaching of Pakistan studies: 1. Lecture, 2. Discussion, 3. Inquiry, 4. Cooperative learning Lecture Strategy Lecture strategy is the most effective way of teaching new concepts to students. It is the most commonly used traditional teaching strategy is lecture. It may be called classical and a teacher-centred teaching strategy. In lecture the teacher presents factual material in a logical manner.
There are four types of testing in schools today — diagnostic, formative, benchmark, and summative. What purpose does each serve? How should parents use them and interpret the feedback from them?
1. Diagnostic Testing
This testing is used to “diagnose” what a student knows and does not know. Diagnostic testing typically happens at the start of a new phase of education, like when students will start learning a new unit. The test covers topics students will be taught in the upcoming lessons.
Teachers use diagnostic testing information to guide what and how they teach. For example, they will plan to spend more time on the skills that students struggled with most on the diagnostic test. If students did particularly well on a given section, on the other hand, they may cover that content more quickly in class. Students are not expected to have mastered all the information in a diagnostic test.
Diagnostic testing can be a helpful tool for parents. The feedback my kids receive on these tests lets me know what kind of content they will be focusing on in class and lets me anticipate which skills or areas they may have trouble with.
2. Formative Testing
This type of testing is used to gauge student learning during the lesson. It is used throughout a lecture and designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate that they have understood the material, like in the example of the clock activity mentioned above. This informal, low-stakes testing happens in an ongoing manner, and student performance on formative testing tends to get better as a lesson progresses.
Schools normally do not send home reports on formative testing, but it is an important part of teaching and learning. If you help your children with their homework, you are likely using a version of formative testing as you work together.
For example, while watching my son, Luke, measure objects using inches and centimeters this week, I was able to see when he chose the wrong unit or when he did not start the measurement at the zero point on the tape measure. That was a form of formative testing. I find it helpful as a parent because it lets me correct any mistakes before they become habits for my sons.
3. Benchmark Testing
This testing is used to check whether students have mastered a unit of content. Benchmark testing is given during or after a classroom focuses on a section of material, and covers either a part or all of the content has been taught up to that time. The assessments are designed to let teachers know whether students have understood the material that’s been covered.
Unlike diagnostic testing, students are expected to have mastered material on benchmark tests, since they covers what the children have been focusing on in the classroom. Parents will often receive feedback about how their children have grasped each skill assessed on a benchmark test. This feedback is very important to me as a parent, since it gives me insight into exactly which concepts my boys did not master. Results are broken down by skills, so if I want to further review a topic with my boys, I can find corresponding lessons, videos, or games online, or ask their teachers for resources.
4. Summative Testing
This testing is used as a checkpoint at the end of the year or course to assess how much content students learned overall. This type of testing is similar to benchmark testing, but instead of only covering one unit, it cumulatively covers everything students have been spending time on throughout the year.
These tests are given — using the same process — to all students in a classroom, school, or state, so that everyone has an equal opportunity to demonstrate what they know and what they can do. Students are expected to demonstrate their ability to perform at a level prescribed as the proficiency standard for the test.
Since summative tests cover the full range of concepts for a given grade level, they are not able to assess any one concept deeply. So, the feedback is not nearly as rich or constructive as feedback from a diagnostic or formative test. Instead, these tests serve as a final check that students learned what was expected of them in a given unit.
As a parent, I consider summative testing a confirmation about what I should already know about my sons’ performance. I don’t expect to be surprised by the results, given the regular feedback I have been given in the form of diagnostic, formative, and benchmark testing throughout the year.
Combining Test Results
We need a balance of the four different types of testing in order to get a holistic view of our children’s academic performance. Each type of test differs according to its purpose, timing, skill coverage, and expectations of students.
Though each type offers important feedback, the real value is in putting all that data together:
- Using a diagnostic test, you can gauge what a student already knows and what she will need to learn in the upcoming unit.
- Formative tests help teachers and parents monitor the progress a student is making on a daily basis.
- A benchmark test can be used as an early indicator of whether students have met the lesson’s goals, allowing parents and teachers to reteach concepts that the student may be struggling with.
Ideally, when heading into the summative testing, teachers and parents should already know the extent to which a student has learned the material. The summative testing provides that final confirmation.
Hopefully, the next time parents hear the word testing, they don’t just think of summative testing. Instead, they think of all four types and the value of putting the feedback from them together to get a richer, more thorough understanding of their child’s progress.