Course: Secondary Education (827)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 01
Q.1 What were the aims of Education policy 1998-2010?
According to the constitution of 1973, article 2
All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law
There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.
For the normal and non-lawyer persons there is no relation in this article and its sub-clause with “EP” but for law fraternity it has impact that might be left on whole state policy. Especially where according to law and constitution we donot discriminate among students and institution on the basis of sex, gender, and cast.
Justice “Muhammad Nassem chuhdry” in his famous commentary of constitution of 1973stated that:
“Educational institution Allegation of discrimination in making of answer books by specified papers to appear in court on fixed date of hearing along with answer book of all other examinees marked by them .Validity leave to appeal was granted to examine whether high court was right in summoning examines as well as the answer books to find out if they had been corrected making.”
“Reasonable classification has always been considered permissible, provided that such classification is based on reasonable and rational categorization .such classification must not be arbitrary or artificial, it must be evenly applicable to all persons or goods similarly situated or placed”
Q.2 What are the major growth points in secondary education in Asian countries?
Asia is positioned to be the global economic hub by mid-century. It accounted for 40.9% of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016, an increase of 11.5% since 2000 [1,2,3]. Three countries—China, India, and Japan accounted for about 70% of Asia’s total output in 2016. The rapidly growing population of Asia stands at 4.1 billion people or 55% of the global population. For Asia to constitute more than half of global GDP by 2050, it must raise the quality, diversity, and autonomy of its institutions of higher education [4, 5]. Therefore, Asia needs to be strategic in its international cooperation, with a shifting balance between two patterns of cooperation: traditional patterns of international cooperation with countries of the industrialized Western world and international cooperation with the rapidly emerging nations within the surrounding Asian region. Eastern Asia has become the leading edge of Asia’s higher education system. It has the largest number of students, the greatest number of world-class universities, and a higher proportion of students in the STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics).
Twenty universities in Asia (not including Australia) have risen into the ranks of the world’s top 200 universities, a pace which could see a fifth of the top 200 universities become Asia-based by 2040. It is no surprise that international cooperation in higher education has become a significant strategy for Asia. Asian university presidents are globally engaged in an assortment of consortia, such as the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, World University Network, U21, Asia University Alliance and similar associations. The proportion of non-local academic staff in Asia has climbed, especially in Hong Kong. The University of Hong Kong in Southern China has the highest proportion of international academic staff of any comprehensive research university in the world. China also has the third highest number of foreign students after the USA and UK.
Q.3 Discuss the characteristics of curriculum.
The term ‘curriculum’ has been derived from a Latin word ‘currere’ which means a ‘race course’ or a runway on which one runs to reach a goal. Accordingly, a curriculum is the instructional and the educative programme by following which the pupils achieved their goals, ideals and aspirations of life.
In the past, the second name of curriculum was ‘course of studies’. This term was considered to be a program related to various subjects only. However, the term ‘curriculum’ and ‘course of studies’ were, sometimes interchangeable but used in a very limited sense. As a matter of fact, this viewpoint was a static-view which emphasized only the textbook knowledge or factual information. In those it was correct because the main objective of education was to help the learner to memorize the contents.
Furthermore, curriculum was a body of preserved factual knowledge to be transmitted from the teacher to the pupils and mastered by them through memorization, recitation and drills; and to be reproduced on the demand of the teacher.
The traditional curriculum was subject centred while the modern curriculum is child and life-centred or student centred. With the passes of time and reinforcement of mind the traditional concept of curriculum (which was limited in scope) was replaced by a dynamic and modern concept. Hence, it is now considered to be a broad cumulative and comprehensive term including all the curricular and co-curricular activities. It is the totality of all the learning activities to which we are exposed during study, i.e. classroom experiences, laboratory, library, playgrounds, school building, study tours associations with parents and community. Now, it is more than the textbooks and more than the subject matter selected for a particular class.
Q.4 What were the recommendations of education policy 1998-2010 to improve the system of examination?
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.
Literacy and Non-Formal Education
Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system.
Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.
Q.5 Briefly discuss the general and specific objectives of secondary education in Pakistan.
Following the primary education from ages 5 to 9 is the 3-year Middle School (sixth to eighth grades for children ages 10 to 12), a 2-year secondary school (ninth and tenth grades culminating in “matriculation”) and higher secondary or “intermediate”—eleventh and twelfth grades). Some accounts, including official reports, include the post-primary Middle School as part of the “secondary” stage. On the other hand, some include the “Intermediate” or “Junior College” as part of the “secondary” distinguishing it as “higher secondary.”
In 1991, there were 11,978 secondary schools with an enrollment of 2.995 million students and 154,802 teachers with a student-teacher ratio of 19:l. Because of the relatively low enrollment at the primary education level and high dropout rates at the Middle School (see the section on Preprimary & Primary Education), the Seventh and Eighth Five Year Plans substantially augmented allocations at the primary and Middle School levels. The government also sought to decentralize and democratize the design and implementation of the education strategy by giving the parents a greater voice in running school. It also took measures to transfer control of primary and secondary schools to nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs).