Course: Educational Research (837)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 01
Q.1 Write a detailed note on scientific method.
The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century (with notable practitioners in previous centuries). It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.
Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, the underlying process is frequently the same from one field to another. The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypothetical explanations), deriving predictions from the hypotheses as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions.[a] A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.
Q.2 Discuss the main characteristics of Scientifics research in detail.
The nine main characteristics of science are the following: Objectivity, verifiable, ethical neutrality, systematic exploration, reliability, precision, abstraction and predictability.
Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices. If you are afraid that your work will not be objective enough, then you can ask us to “write my essays” or order proofreading.
Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.
Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.
Q.3 In which areas, educational research should be done in Pakistan? Discuss in detail.
A research area is what a research topic is placed into, but is much broader than the scope of the topic. For example a research area can be human physiology, computer science (as you mentioned) or even relate to a specific field within these broader terms such as cardiac electrophysiology or machine learning respectively.
A research topic would be a specific question, hypothesis or problem you wish to investigate and answer which is under the scope of your research area. That is to say, my research area is in neuroscience/neurophysiology and my research topic is investigating the mechanisms of neuronal communication, as an example.
Educational research is a type of systematic investigation that applies empirical methods to solving challenges in education. It adopts rigorous and well-defined scientific processes in order to gather and analyze data for problem-solving and knowledge advancement.
J. W. Best defines educational research as that activity that is directed towards the development of a science of behavior in educational situations. The ultimate aim of such a science is to provide knowledge that will permit the educator to achieve his goals through the most effective methods.
The primary purpose of educational research is to expand the existing body of knowledge by providing solutions to different problems in pedagogy while improving teaching and learning practices. While educational research can take numerous forms and approaches, several characteristics define its process and approach. Some of them are listed below:
- It sets out to solve a specific problem.
- Educational research adopts primary and secondary research methods in its data collection process. This means that in educational research, the investigator relies on first-hand sources of information and secondary data to arrive at a suitable conclusion.
- Educational research relies on empirical evidence. This results from its largely scientific approach.
- Educational research is objective and accurate because it measures verifiable information.
- In educational research, the researcher adopts specific methodologies, detailed procedures, and analysis to arrive at the most objective responses.
Q.4 Write a detailed note on applied research.
Applied research is a type of research design that seeks to solve a specific problem or provide innovative solutions to issues affecting an individual, group or society. It is often referred to as a scientific method of inquiry or contractual research because it involves the practical application of scientific methods to everyday problems.
When conducting applied research, the researcher takes extra care to identify a problem, develop a research hypothesis and goes ahead to test these hypotheses via an experiment. In many cases, this research approach employs empirical methods in order to solve practical problems.
Applied research is sometimes considered to be a non-systematic inquiry because of its direct approach in seeking a solution to a problem. It is typically a follow-up research design that further investigates the findings of pure or basic research in order to validate these findings and apply them to create innovative solutions.
Types of Applied Research
There are 3 types of applied research. These are evaluation research, research and development, and action research.
Evaluation research is a type of applied research that analyses existing information about a research subject to arrive at objective research outcomes or reach informed decisions. This type of applied research is mostly applied in business contexts, for example, an organisation may adopt evaluation research to determine how to cut down overhead costs.
Q.5 Write in detail the type of research that inspires you the most and why?
Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than “perspiration” (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas “fire the soul,” such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit Describing his creative process, Mozart observed, “Those ideas that please me I retain in memory, and am accustomed, as I have been told, to hum them to myself.