Assignment No. 2
Q.1 Define population and sampling. Explain different types of random sampling. (20)
A population is a complete set of people with a specialized set of characteristics, and a sample is a subset of the population. The usual criteria we use in defining population are geographic, for example, “the population of Uttar Pradesh”. In medical research, the criteria for population may be clinical, demographic and time related.
- Clinical and demographic characteristics define the target population, the large set of people in the world to which the results of the study will be generalized (e.g. all schizophrenics).
- The study population is the subset of the target population available for study (e.g. schizophrenics in the researcher’s town).
- The study sample is the sample chosen from the study population.
METHODS OF SAMPLING
Purposive (non-random samples)
- Volunteers who agree to participate
- Snowball sample, where one case identifies others of his kind (e.g. intravenous drug users)
- Convenient sample such as captive medical students or other readily available groups
- Quota sampling, at will selection of a fixed number from each group
- Referred cases who may be under pressure to participate
- Haphazard with combination of the above methods
Non-random samples have certain limitations. The larger group (target population) is difficult to identify. This may not be a limitation when generalization of results is not intended. The results would be valid for the sample itself (internal validity). They can, nevertheless, provide important clues for further studies based on random samples. Another limitation of non-random samples is that statistical inferences such as confidence intervals and tests of significance cannot be estimated from non-random samples. However, in some situations, the investigator has to make crucial judgments. One should remember that random samples are the means but representativeness is the goal. When non-random samples are representative (compare the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample subjects with the target population), generalization may be possible.
Q.2 Tests can be used as research tool, describe their types, development and administration for research purpose.
Q.3 Develop a research proposal on “Analysis of Management Practices in Secondary School in Lahore” mention all necessary steps properly. (20)
Q.4 What is the difference between a research proposal and a research report? What is a reference in research report? Read APA manual 6th edition and explain the style of reference of a book, a journal and web source with example. (20)
Q.5 What type of research tools are used in qualitative research? Mention the characteristics of any three tools for qualitative research. (20)