Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Semester: Autumn, 2021 Level: B.Ed
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 differentiate the school discipline and classroom management and give suggestions for improving the school discipline and classroom.
This is different from discipline, which is just one part of classroom management. Where discipline describes the consequences you give students for not following the rules, classroom management describes a more general set of procedures, most of which are aimed at avoiding problems rather than responding to them.
A key component of teaching is effective classroom management. This is the set of steps you follow to ensure that your students pay attention, don’t distract each other and generally stay on task. This is different from discipline, which is just one part of classroom management. Where discipline describes the consequences you give students for not following the rules, classroom management describes a more general set of procedures, most of which are aimed at avoiding problems rather than responding to them.
The classroom setup is an example of classroom management that is not discipline. After a few weeks of teaching, it becomes fairly clear which students should not be sitting near one another, as certain friends (and enemies) will distract one another and the children around them for the entire lesson. Discipline would be punishing these children every time they disrupt the class; classroom management is moving them somewhere else to keep the disruption from happening in the first place.
Another example of the difference between discipline and classroom management is the classroom rules. Classroom management is when you make the rules clear to the children, either through discussion or by teaching through another method. Posting these rules in a prominent place is another way to help manage your classroom — by making the rules clear to children and making them visible, you make it less likely that the rules will be violated.
Discipline is how you respond to violations of these rules. This makes rules an excellent way to highlight these differences — classroom management is the front end of the rules and discipline is the back end.
Classroom management is also a matter of keeping students occupied, either in a lesson, discussion or activity. When children have something to focus on, they are less likely to create their own stimuli by “zoning out” or misbehaving. So, particularly for younger years, it is strongly recommended that teachers overplan their lessons in order to always give the children something to do.
Discipline is a matter of dishing out consequences when students go off task, whether the lesson is well-planned or not. In general, the more thoroughly occupied students are, the less discipline they will need.
A final example of a difference between classroom management and discipline is the general tone you set. You set a tone in classroom management by your confidence, the way you present yourself and how well you relate to students. If you do these well, your classroom will be well-managed because it will be clear to students who is in control.
Discipline also requires tone-setting. Once you’ve made the rules clear, you need to follow through the minute someone violates them. This is basically setting an example. It’s often not enough to simply have rules; rather, you need to let students know you’re serious. This concept and that mentioned above are examples of setting a tone in which the teacher is in control and creating a positive learning environment.
Q.2 Explain the functions, purpose, advantages and disadvantages of classroom management.
Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class. When classroom-management strategies are executed effectively, teachers minimize the behaviors that impede learning for both individual students and groups of students, while maximizing the behaviors that facilitate or enhance learning.
Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class. When classroom-management strategies are executed effectively, teachers minimize the behaviors that impede learning for both individual students and groups of students, while maximizing the behaviors that facilitate or enhance learning. Generally speaking, effective teachers tend to display strong classroom-management skills, while the hallmark of the inexperienced or less effective teacher is a disorderly classroom filled with students who are not working or paying attention.
While a limited or more traditional interpretation of effective classroom management may focus largely on “compliance”—rules and strategies that teachers may use to make sure students are sitting in their seats, following directions, listening attentively, etc.—a more encompassing or updated view of classroom management extends to everything that teachers may do to facilitate or improve student learning, which would include such factors as behavior (a positive attitude, happy facial expressions, encouraging statements, the respectful and fair treatment of students, etc.), environment (for example, a welcoming, well-lit classroom filled with intellectually stimulating learning materials that’s organized to support specific learning activities), expectations (the quality of work that teachers expect students to produce, the ways that teachers expect students to behave toward other students, the agreements that teachers make with students), materials (the types of texts, equipment, and other learning resources that teachers use), or activities (the kinds of learning experiences that teachers design to engage student interests, passions, and intellectual curiosity). Given that poorly designed lessons, uninteresting learning materials, or unclear expectations, for example, could contribute to greater student disinterest, increased behavioral problems, or unruly and disorganized classes, classroom management cannot be easily separated from all the other decisions that teachers make. In this more encompassing view of classroom management, good teaching and good classroom management become, to some degree, indistinguishable.
Advantage: More Interaction
A classroom environment offers students the opportunity to have face-to-face interactions with their peers and instructors. This is an added social benefit as well as an educational aid. Because students see the same peers in class every session, they get a chance to form friendships. In the case of higher learning, pupils can find potential lifelong professional connections. On the educational side, students get a chance to participate in a lecture or class discussion physically. If students don’t understand something, they can always ask the instructor for clarification is always an option.
Disadvantage: No Flexibility
A campus-based learning experience means the class schedule is predetermined and not subject to change. Students must shape their personal schedules around school instead of the other way around. If plans unexpectedly change or an emergency comes up, the student cannot adjust the class schedule to turn in the work at a different time. If a scheduling conflict arises between work and school, students are forced to choose between getting an education and getting a paycheck.
Advantage: Traditional Experience
In some cases, the classroom environment is the only style of education the students know, and therefore the situation that they are most comfortable learning in. In the classroom, students get the opportunity for hands-on, structured learning instead of being presented with the course books, written lectures and self-directed activities distance learning provides. Many students rely on this structure to support their learning, and changing to an online learning experience might make it challenging for them to retain material.
Disadvantage: Travel Considerations
With classroom learning, students must physically attend the courses to get credit for attendance. Those who must travel long distances to get to school must allot enough time to arrive on time, particularly in instances in which inclement weather is involved. A long commute may also mean a spending more money on gas over a long period of time which, when combined with the cost of education, may present an issue to financially challenged students.
Q.3 Discuss the benefits of cash book, monthly programme and fee collection register.
Advantages of Cash Book Cash book offers the following advantages: 1.It offers easy verification of cash by matching the balance in the cash book with actual cash in hand and is therefore helpful in identifying mistakes in the entry. 2.It helps in creating a regular record of transactions date wise for the convenience of accounting personnel.
Advantages of Cash Book
Cash book offers the following advantages:
1.It offers easy verification of cash by matching the balance in the cash book with actual cash in hand and is therefore helpful in identifying mistakes in the entry.
2.It helps in creating a regular record of transactions date wise for the convenience of accounting personnel.
- As it is maintained date wise, any cash payments or the transaction can be correctly traced back in the cash book.
- It is helpful in detecting any cash frauds in the organisation.
5.It helps in saving time and labour by reducing the workload
This concludes the concept of Cash Book, which is one of the most important concepts that Commerce students need to understand to create a solid foundation for higher studies. For more such interesting concepts, stay tuned to BYJU’S.
All the students selected for admission will have to pay semester fee on the scheduled fee collection day, which is notified by the respective faculties.
- Newly selected students failing to deposit their semester fee on the scheduled fee collection day or by bank draft by the next working day will forfeit their claim for admission.
- Fee collection will take place during 10.30 A.M. to 1.30 P.M. Fee can be paid, using pay-in-slips provided by the respective faculties, either by cash or bank draft payable to “Dayalbagh Educational Institute” at Agra.
- Students on the waiting list for admissions are advised to enquire from the office of the faculty concerned, following the fee collection day, if any vacancy exists on account of non-payment of fee by the initially selected students. In case of vacancies, the students in waiting list in order of merit will be permitted, to the extent of existing vacancies, to deposit semester fee at the notified place and time.
- Registration of the students followed by collection of semester fee will be done on the first day or the next working day of the scheduled opening of classesof the respective faculties and regular teaching will commence from the same day. The schedule of beginning of classes will be notified through a notification issued by the Institute before the end of the preceding semester.
- Beyond First Semester, students failing to register by the scheduled date or by the next working day, may be allowed to register within two more weeks by paying a late fee of Rs.100/- only, payable by bank draft. Provided also that the Director, may, for special reason(s) to be recorded, allow further time for late registration till 31stAugust of the session, with a late fee of Rs.200/- only, payable by bank draft.
- Beyond First Semester, students failing to deposit the prescribed fee by the scheduled date or by bank draft by the next working day, may be allowed to deposit the prescribed fee within two more weeks by paying a late fee of Rs.100/- only, payable by bank draft. Provided also that the Director may, for special reason(s) to be recorded, allow further time till 31stAugust of the session, with a late fee of Rs.200/- only, payable by bank draft.
- All registrations for new admissions shall close two weeks after the prescribed registration day. Thereafter, no student shall be registered and his/her admission shall stand cancelled.
- For changes in the registered courses, students may apply on fresh registration forms up to two weeks from the prescribed registration day.
- Students, who get themselves registered late, shall be deemed to have secured zero mark in all the components of continuous evaluation that might have been conducted up to the date of registration.
- Permission for the registration in the next academic session would depend upon the satisfactory performance throughout the previous academic session of two semesters (the odd and the next even semester taken together).
- In an undergraduate course, an elective course shall be offered only if the number of students is not less than five.
Q.4 Discuss the major function of BISE and education code.
BISE – Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education in Pakistan Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education are responsible to administer school and colleges offering primary and secondary education in Pakistan. Every BISE also administer the exames for such classes. Every province has boards in major districts.
BISE – Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education in Pakistan
Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education are responsible to administer school and colleges offering primary and secondary education in Pakistan. Every BISE also administer the exames for such classes. Every province has boards in major districts.
Responsibilities of BISEs
Public education is universally available. School curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally by school boards in compliance with over all provincial and federal policies. Every provincial government takes care of standards at Intermediate and secondary education level in the region by help of BISE at district level. Hence; every board is responsible to offer a transparent examination system and evaluation methodology. Each BISE in any province is controlled by a single provincial Board of Education.
Ethics codes can be distinguished according to two principle categories: the group enacting the code, and the functions of the code within that group.
Professional: applying only to members of a certain profession
Organizational: applying only to members or a certain class of members of the association formally enacting code
Practice-specific: applying to anyone involved in a certain voluntary practice (1)
Functions of Codes of Ethics:
Inspiration and Guidance
Codes provide a positive stimulus for ethical conduct and helpful guidance and advice concerning the main obligations of the members of the group to which it applies. Generally, a code will begin with broad commitments. The remaining functions of the code contribute to the development and interpretation of these commitments. See, for example, the American Medical Association’s Code of Medical Ethics. The Code is structured in a way that foregrounds the more general ideals and commitments, which are outlined in the “Principles of Medical Ethics” section. Each of the following Chapters, meanwhile, provides in-depth guidance on topics morally relevant to medical ethics. More specific directions may be given in supplementary statements or guidelines, such as one finds in the Ethical Guidelines for Organ Transplantation. These supplementary guidelines aid in the application and interpretation of codes in certain circumstances.
Codes give positive support to those seeking to act ethically. A publicly proclaimed code allows a person who is under pressure to act unethically to say: “I am bound by the code of ethics of my profession, which states that…” This provides a level of group cooperation in taking stands on moral issues. Moreover, codes can potentially serve as legal support in courts of law for those seeking to meet work-related moral obligations. Click here to read a case study that involves a [md1] conflict between what a supervisor asks of a professional and what her profession requires.
Deterrence and Discipline
Codes can serve as the formal basis for investigating unethical conduct. Where such investigation is possible, prudence becomes a motive for acting ethically. Occasionally, violations of ethics codes are grounds for the revocation of the ability to practice professionally, such as one finds with the role of the American Bar Association’s Model Rules of Professional Conduct in disbarment procedures.
Education and Mutual Understanding
Codes can be used in the classroom and elsewhere to prompt discussion and reflection on moral issues and to encourage a shared understanding among professionals, the public, and government organizations concerning the special moral responsibilities of individuals in professions, organizations, and/or a specific practice. For example, see the National Society of Professional Engineers Code of Ethics, which encourages a form of “sustainable development” that meets human needs while conserving and protecting environmental quality. For an example of how ethics codes be revised or manipulated in order to permit certain activities, see the New York Times summary of the 2015 Hoffman Report. The Report documents the American Psychological Association’s collusion with the United States Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency, which enabled psychologists’ participation in “enhanced interrogation” techniques during the George W. Bush administration.
Contributions to Public Image
Codes can present a positive image to the public of an ethically guided profession, organization, or practice. Where the image is warranted, it can help members more effectively serve the public. It can also win greater powers of self-regulation for the group itself, while lessening the demand for more government regulation. The reputation of a profession, organization, or practice, like the reputation of an individual or a corporation, is essential in sustaining the trust of the public.
The diversity of moral viewpoints among individual practitioners makes it essential that a profession, organization, or practice establish explicit standards, in a particular minimum standard beyond what law, market, morality, and public opinion would otherwise require. In this way, the public is assured of a good conduct and professionals, organizations, and other practitioners are provided a fair playing field in which to compete.
Functions defined in Martin, Mike W. and Schinzinger, Roland, Ethics in Engineering, 2nd edition, New York: McGraw Hill, 1989. Some of the language has been adjusted in order to make the categories more applicable to ethics codes in general and not simply ethics codes in engineering. Also, several of the categories have been supplemented by changes in the 4th edition of Ethics in Engineering.
An Example Ethics Code
Notes in this code will be shown in italics, to illustrate what portions of the ethics code perform the functions discussed above.
American Association of University Professors, Statement on Professional Ethics, 1987
From its inception, the American Association of University Professors has recognized that membership in the academic profession carries with it special responsibilities. The Association has consistently affirmed these responsibilities in major policy statements, providing guidance to professors in such matters as their utterances as citizens, the exercise of their responsibilities to students and colleagues, and their conduct when resigning from an institution or when undertaking sponsored research. The Statement on Professional Ethics that follows sets forth those general standards that serve as a reminder of the variety of responsibilities assumed by all members of the profession.
Deterrance and Discipline:
In the enforcement of ethical standards, the academic profession differs from those of law and medicine, whose associations act to ensure the integrity of members engaged in private practice. In the academic profession the individual institution of higher learning provides this assurance and so should normally handle questions concerning propriety of conduct within its own framework by reference to a faculty group. The Association supports such local action and stands ready, through the general secretary and Committee B, to counsel with members of the academic community concerning questions of professional ethics and to inquire into complaints when local consideration is impossible or inappropriate. If the alleged offense is deemed sufficiently serious to raise the possibility of adverse action, the procedures should be in accordance with the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, the 1958 Statement on Procedural Standards in Faculty Dismissal Proceedings, or the applicable provisions of the Association’s Recommended Institutional Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure.
Inspiration and Guidance:
I. Professors, guided by a deep conviction of the worth and dignity of the advancement of knowledge, recognize the special responsibilities placed upon them. Their primary responsibility to their subject is to seek and to state the truth as they see it. To this end professors devote their energies to developing and improving their scholarly competence. They accept the obligation to exercise critical self-discipline and judgment in using, extending, and transmitting knowledge. They practice intellectual honesty. Although professors may follow subsidiary interests, these interests must never seriously hamper or compromise their freedom of inquiry.
Education and Mutual Understanding:
II. As teachers, professors encourage the free pursuit of learning in their students. They hold before them the best scholarly and ethical standards of their discipline. Professors demonstrate respect for students as individuals and adhere to their proper roles as intellectual guides and counselors. Professors make every reasonable effort to foster honest academic conduct and to ensure that their evaluations of students reflect each student’s true merit. They respect the confidential nature of the relationship between professor and student. They avoid any exploitation, harassment, or discriminatory treatment of students. They acknowledge significant academic or scholarly assistance from them. They protect their academic freedom.
III. As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues. They respect and defend the free inquiry of associates. In the exchange of criticism and ideas professors show due respect for the opinions of others. Professors acknowledge academic debt and strive to be objective in their professional judgment of colleagues. Professors accept their share of faculty responsibilities for the governance of their institution.
IV. As members of an academic institution, professors seek above all to be effective teachers and scholars. Although professors observe the stated regulations of the institution, provided the regulations do not contravene academic freedom, they maintain their right to criticize and seek revision. Professors give due regard to their paramount responsibilities within their institution in determining the amount and character of work done outside it. When considering the interruption or termination of their service, professors recognize the effect of their decision upon the program of the institution and give due notice of their intentions.
Q.5 How we can improve the management through evaluation? Discuss
f you think that all is well with your current performance management approach, think again: more than half of managers (58%) dislike their own organization’s performance review system and would give it a grade of C or less (source: Sibson Consulting). This data points to a significant issue in the way most companies are managing performance.
Specifically, the problem is that instead of focusing on the improvement and development of employees and their performance, the old ways of performance management have emphasized ineffective motivators, such as salary-based incentives and other unproductive practices.
The solution is to develop a continuous performance management system that focuses primarily on improving and developing employees. Here’s how you can achieve that in six steps:
1. Oust ineffective, traditional performance reviews.
There are multiple issues with traditional, yearly performance review models. For one thing, assessing performance once per year is ineffective and doesn’t provide ample opportunities for employees to improve. There is little actionable feedback provided, and moreover, it’s not given in real-time, so the underperformance or bad behavior has already gone on unnoticed for far too long. That’s bad for both your company and your employees’ performance.
Secondly, traditional reviews are often measured against the Normal Distribution, i.e., “The Bell Curve.” This is problematic because the majority of employees (those who are just getting by and falling within the average of the Bell Curve) aren’t inclined to change when their performance is judged against this curve. Worse yet, two in three performance appraisals done this way either result in no change at all, or a decrease in performance (source: Forbes).
2. Identify and praise exceptional talent.
As indicated above, appraising performance against the Bell Curve is problematic. But when it comes to identifying star performers, the Bell Curve can be helpful. In most cases, 10% of employees make up the lowest rankings, and 10% make up the highest. It’s in your best interest to take notice of those outlying employees—those who aren’t buried in the middle of the Bell Curve, but are forging their own paths to success as standout, dedicated contributors.
Once you’ve identified them, you must do all that you can to retain these devoted high performers. Ensure proper resource allocation to provide continuous opportunities for your top talent to grow and develop, and keep communication open with an ongoing feedback loop (see #4 for more information on this).
3. Use OKRs to effectively align individual objectives with corporate goals.
One of the most efficient ways to improve performance and make it easier to manage is by linking individual’s contributions to the highest company priorities. OKRs (objectives and key results) promote cascading alignment by ensuring that CEO-level goals are being accomplished because each employee’s efforts are supporting those business goals.
With OKRs, employees see for themselves how their efforts are making an impact on goal execution. That helps boost performance organically, and with a measured way of tracking goal progress, managers can assess performance on an ongoing basis and in real-time.
4. Develop a continuous feedback loop.
To exchange feedback on performance regularly, you must communicate with your people on a weekly basis. Part of this exchange can be a weekly check-in. Weekly employee progress reports are also a great way to keep the lines of communication open.
With an employee progress report, you can ask questions about weekly wins, potential roadblocks, and any pressing concerns your employees may be facing. That allows you to get a snapshot of performance every single week, and you can provide your own comments to their reports to give actionable feedback in real-time.
5. Turn your managers into coaches.
All managers should be focused on improving their employees’ strengths through coaching. Unfortunately, almost half of managers spend less than 10% of their time coaching their team. It’s no surprise, then, that only 28% of employees feel that their managers hold effective discussions about performance (source: Forbes).
To be good coaches, managers should keep performance feedback focused on the future as much as possible. Punishing for past mistakes or underperformance doesn’t facilitate future development. Effective coaches give frequent, specific feedback about what employees can do to start improving right now. To ensure that your managers are coaching their teams, encourage them to ask: “What are you going to get done this week?” And, “What do you need from me?”
6. Develop an effective way to measure success.
Once you’ve replaced the annual review with a continuous approach to performance management, you’ll still need a way to answer these two questions: Is performance management happening, and is it working effectively?
If you’ve chosen to implement weekly progress reports, it should be easy to identify whether or not performance management is happening regularly. If reports are being completed and there is an ongoing exchange about performance among managers and their direct reports, then it is indeed happening.
But is it working? To answer that question, you must first have a set of standards in place against which performance is measured. Remember, the goal is not to gauge all performers against a blanket set of criteria (i.e., the Bell Curve), but instead, you must clarify what is expected of each employee in his or her own specific role. Then, you can assess performance against those pre-established expectations. Consider having more frequent appraisals to formally discuss how employees are performing against your expectations, and if needed, develop strategic, individualized plans for improving performance.
The project evaluation process uses systemic analysis to gather data and reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of your management. This crucial exercise keeps projects on track and informs stakeholders of progress.
Every aspect of the project is measured to determine if it’s proceeding as planned, and if not, inform how project parts be improved. Basically, you’re asking the project a series of questions designed to discover what is working, what can be improved and whether the project is in fact useful. Tools like project dashboards and trackers help in the evaluation process by making key data readily available.
The project evaluation process has been around as long as there have been projects to evaluate. But when it comes to the science of project management, project evaluation can be broken down into three main types: pre-project evaluation, ongoing evaluation and post-project evaluation. So, let’s look at the project evaluation process, what it entails and how you can improve your technique.
Three Types of Project Evaluation
There are three points in a project where evaluation is most needed. While you can evaluate your project at any time, these are points where you should have the process officially scheduled.
In a sense, you’re pre-evaluating your project when you write your project charter to pitch to the stakeholders. You cannot effectively plan, staff and control a new project if you’ve first not evaluated it. Pre-project evaluation is the only sure way you can determine the effectiveness of the project before executing it.
To make sure your project is proceeding as planned and hitting all the scheduling and budget milestones you set, it’s crucial that you are constantly monitoring and reporting on your work in real-time. Only by using project metrics can you measure the success of your project and whether or not you’re meeting the project’s goals and objectives.
Think of this as a postmortem. The post-project evaluation is when you go through the project’s paperwork, interview the project team and principles, and analyze all relevant data so you can understand what worked and what went wrong. Only by developing this clear picture can you resolve issues in upcoming projects.