Assignment No. 1
Q.1 Explain general principles of development.
Growth and development are inseparable but they differ from each other. The growth represents the physical changes of an individual and development represents the overall changes, structure and shape of an individual.
Knowledge of the growth and development at the various stage is very essential for the teacher. The teacher has to stimulate the growth and development of a child. He can do it only if he has proper knowledge of the growth and development at various stages.
Growth terms represent a purely physical sense of a person, i.e height, weight, size and length etc.
Growth is quantitive. It starts with conception but ends at some particular age.
Development implies the overall change in shape, form or structure, along with the function of the organ. Development is both quantitative and qualitative. It is a continuous process starting from the Womb and ending with the tomb.
Principles of Growth and Development
Principle of Continuity
The development follows the principle of continuity which means that development is a continuous process. It starts with pre-natal and ends with death.
Q.2 Why is good physical health necessary for good learners?
Children who exercise regularly, have good nutrition and sleep well are more likely to attend school, and do well at school. And the benefits are not just for children: good physical health is associated with enhanced quality of life, increased productivity in the workplace and increased participation in the community and society.
However, children and young people across the OECD are not engaging enough in the behaviours they need to be healthy. Between 2000 to 2016, PISA data show that children and young people were less likely to reach the minimum recommended daily physical activity levels (>60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity daily). They were also less likely to get enough quality sleep, and more likely to be overweight and obese and have poor dietary habits (including increasing overconsumption of soft drinks, sweets, salty snacks and fast food).
These trends are extremely concerning. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are associated with higher rates of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, and while historically considered to be diseases of adulthood, these are now evident in children as young as two years old.
Education is uniquely placed to positively influence the health of students. A newly published paper on recent trends has identified two of the most effective types of school-based interventions:
Intellectual development refers here to the changes that occur, as a result of growth and experience, in a person’s capacities for thinking, reasoning, relating, judging, conceptualizing, etc. In particular it concerns such changes in children. Cognitive or intellectual development means the growth of a child’s ability to think and reason. It’s about how they organize their minds, ideas and thoughts to make sense of the world they live in.
Some intellectual development milestones you may notice in five and six-year-olds include:
· Vocabulary increasing to 2,000 words, sentences of five or more words.
· Can count up to 10 objects at one time, can copy complex shapes.
· Begin to reason and argue, uses words like why and because.
· Understand concepts like yesterday, today and tomorrow.
· Are able to sit at a desk, follow teacher instructions and do simple assignments independently.
Some intellectual development milestones you may notice in seven to 11-year-olds include:
· A longer attention span and willing to take on more responsibility such as chores.
· Understand fractions, money and the concept of space.
· Can tell time and name months and days of week in order.
· Enjoy reading a book on their own.
Q.5 Why is developing social skills among children necessary? Discuss the tools for
promoting social lerning.