Course: Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Year) Semester: Spring, 2022
Q.1 Elaborates the models of organizational behavior useful in human resource purposes in an organization.
Organizational Behavior – Our inherent power of generalization helps us predict other people’s behaviour; however, sometimes, our generalizations and predictions fail. This happens as we fail to analyze and go into the depth of the patterns affecting people’s behaviour at that particular time or period. This calls for understanding and following the systematic approach to the study of the organizational behavior. The study helps in increasing our predictive ability to understand the behavior of the people, particularly in the group or an organization, and how their behavior impacts the performance of an organization. Almost all organizations develop the models on the basis of which behavior of the people is determined. This model depends on the assumption that organizational behavior management carries about its people, mission, and goals. It is noted that most of the organizations make the assumptions on the basis that people are not to be trusted even in the slightest matter. For instance, McGregor theories X and Y are based on quite contradictory assumptions; Argyris focuses on the immaturity and maturity level of the people providing two opposing views. The Organizational Behavior models formulated would show many different variations and kind of continuum between the two opposite poles.
Q.2 What are the limitations and benefits of system and process approaches in educational institutions?
Ans : Educational Technology as a systems approach: All attempts made to define the concept of educational technology as an area of study involving the application of technologies emerged from the application of theories of learning and development as well as information and communication technologies have not been comprehensive enough without a theoretical grounding in the social context. The use of these technologies has to be grounded in a theoretical foundation provided by a systems perspective. The field of educational technology shares the same difficulties and struggles involved in defining itself as one comes across while defining other social sciences and applied social sciences. This section attempts to provide you with adequate theoretical understanding about systems theory in order to have a more comprehensive view of the field of educational technology.
You would have read through the two sections indicated in the article by Luppicini (2005). You would have understood that a comprehensive definition of educational technology goes beyond uses of technology including techniques, theories, and methods from multiple knowledge domains which are standardised and reproducible such as computer science, psychology and communications. The definition would also include the governing principles of systems approach.
Q.3 What are the strategies of change process applicable for managing the change?
Businesses must constantly evolve and adapt to meet a variety of challenges—from changes in technology, to the rise of new competitors, to a shift in laws, regulations, or underlying economic trends. Failure to do so could lead to stagnation or, worse, failure.
Approximately 50 percent of all organizational change initiatives are unsuccessful, highlighting why knowing how to plan for, coordinate, and carry out change is a valuable skill for managers and business leaders alike.
Have you been tasked with managing a significant change initiative for your organization? Would you like to demonstrate that you’re capable of spearheading such an initiative the next time one arises? Here’s an overview of what change management is, the key steps in the process, and actions you can take to develop your managerial skills and become more effective in your role.
Q.4 Discuss the ways of data collection and its analysis for future improvements in curriculum and instruction designing.
Data collection is the methodological process of gathering information about a specific subject. It’s crucial to ensure your data is complete during the collection phase and that it’s collected legally and ethically. If not, your analysis won’t be accurate and could have far-reaching consequences.
In general, there are three types of consumer data:
First-party data, which is collected directly from users by your organization
Second-party data, which is data shared by another organization about its customers (or its first-party data)
Third-party data, which is data that’s been aggregated and rented or sold by organizations that don’t have a connection to your company or users
Although there are use cases for second- and third-party data, first-party data (data you’ve collected yourself) is more valuable because you receive information about how your audience behaves, thinks, and feels—all from a trusted source.
Q.5 Explain accounting and budgeting system are mandatory technologies tools for socio economic activates.
Accountancy in the Development Process
If we want to consider more fully the kind of accountancy needed in planning economic development, we must consider it in three specific fields: development planning, capital formation, and government administration. Development planning involves the application of rational choices among various patterns of investment. One of the most difficult tasks in development planning is the outlining, screening, selection, and implementation of projects and programs. Import statistics, social accounts data, input-output tables, commodity flows, market studies, and rough cost-benefit calculations might give us an indication of potentialities. However, to prepare, measure, and evaluate projects in accordance with established economic policies and alternatives is a tedious task, and requires the measurement of social and individual benefits and costs. This is an accountancy function.
Cost-benefit analysis, or cost-effectiveness in government, resembles profit maximization for the business firm. It is important that all the benefits and all the cost of a program or project be taken into account. The cost, benefit, and investment return data are also used for the social accounts and other feasibility studies, and these micro data assist in portraying alternative development models. Erroneous or unrealistic cost and benefit information may cause unwise investments and investment fund allocation.