Course: Educational Assessment and Evaluation (8624)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Level: B.Ed. (2.5 and 1.5 Years)
Discuss the important features of text books and examination system. Also give suggestions for improving the both
- The process of educating and examining the growing human child is as old as man himself. Only its form and method have changed from time to time, the primitive man was taught by example and tested through confrontation with the actual life situations. In the early civilized societies formal instruction was limited to a gifted and selected few: The sage, the philosopher and the religious preceptor taught and tested orally by questioning the disciple.
- For purposes of appraisal usually two terms are used, namely; examination and evaluation. The term examination aims at ensuring that the matter learnt is adequately fixed and properly recalled.
- This is a narrow significance and usually relates to class room situations in which emphasis is laid on the learning of a few facts and skills. But the term evaluation has a wider connotation. It relates to finding out the mental, moral and social changes that have come about in the personality pattern of a student and are directly affecting his behavior.
- Evaluation has a direct reference to the goals of education and therefore, must take into consideration broader implications which have
- Concept of Examination Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or fruits (of you toil). But give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere (Al-Quran.ii:155).
- Examination Examination is a measuring instrument intended to verify both a candidates’ value and value of teaching he has received. It is an indicator of the training given and received. It is to measure what has been accomplished during the period of study to weigh each candidate’s sum of knowledge and appraise his ability. It looks like target, incentive, motive or stimulant. “It provides motives for the teacher and a spur for the pupils. Examination conditions and orientates the entire teaching process” (UNESCO 1961) The aim of our examination system is to judge the achievement of students in different areas such as personality development, creative thinking, and love for Islamic values examinations are the only tools for measuring these aspects. Examinations are frequently employed in order to keep the students constantly stimulated to high level of achievement. Examination system may be internal or external. The success of which depends on the reliability and the validity of the system.
Analyze the secondary education system of Sri-Lanka and Germany
The German education system functions upon the rules and regulations of the Basic Law “Grundgesetz”. The Federal Ministries of Education, Cultural Affair and Science is the main authority for making education, science and arts policy guidelines, and for adopting related laws and administrative regulations.The ministry closely collaborates with the Federation and Länders (German states) authorities, in supervising the entire activity of the educational institutions, organizations and foundations.
Responsibility on education issues in Germany is shared amongst Länders and the Federation (which has a minor role). Though, there are areas of cooperation in the education field for which such a distinction between both parts doesn’t exist, known as “joint tasks” or “Gemeinschaftsaufgaben”.
Landers, on the other hand, have a wide legislative power around their territory about school, academic, adult and continuing sector (except if the Basic law empowers the Federation with such a power instead).
How is the school system structured in Germany?
The German school system is divided into 5 levels:
Discuss the issues of seventh five-year plan (1988-1993).
The Seventh Five-Year Plans for National Economy of Pakistan, otherwise known as Seventh Plan, were a set of a highly centralized and planned economic development targets designed for the improvement of the standard of living, and overall strengthening of gross domestic product (GDP) growth in Pakistan, between the period of 1988 until its termination in 1993.
The seventh plan was drafted and presented by the Ministry of Finance (MoF), led by then popularly elected Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, at the Parliament in 1988. The plan was studied by the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) and resources were gathered to be allocated by the Planning Commission. The seventh plan was an integral part of Bhutto’s social capitalist policies implementation and was also integrated with the nationalization programme of former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The plan emphasized macroeconomics principles and was intended to support the development of the agricultural and electricity sectors in Pakistan in order to keep up the GDP growth rate, which at that time was 6.6%— one of the highest in the world.
Under this plan, science policy was further expanded to integrate academic scientific development into national development plans. The seventh plan also took initiatives to revive deregulation of the corporate sector but did not privatize the sector into private-ownership management. Unlike the sixth plan, not all targets were met and goals were not sufficiently fulfilled. Only the agricultural and scientific development aspects of the plans were continued whilst all major initiatives were cancelled by the upcoming Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif who replaced the programme with an intensified privatization programme, launched in 1991.
Q.4 Explain the reorganization and importance of teacher education. Also highlight the factors which affect the quality of teacher education in Pakistan.
The right to education is enshrined within the Constitution of Pakistan. Article 25-A Pakistan states: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law.”(“The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan”, 2012)
Following the 18th amendment, education has largely become a provincial rather than a national issue, and each province has made progress in developing reforms to their respective education systems. However, implementation of these reforms has remained a huge challenge. There is no doubt that steps have also been taken to strengthen the facilities and services for primary, middle and secondary schools, as well as an admirable effort directed towards the expansion of non-formal education. Unfortunately, major issues and challenges continue to hinder the end goals of these initiatives from being achieved.
Some statics on the state of education in Pakistan
To share a few examples of the obstacles faced, the population of Pakistan has reached 208 million individuals as of 2018. 38% of this population currently lives below the poverty line (Jamal, 2017), while 43% of the adult population (i.e. aged 15 and above) remains illiterate. For portion of adults mentioned, the percentage can be further broken down to reveal a substantial gender gap wherein 51% of adult women compared to 30% of men are illiterate(AEPAM, 2016). Several other factors also directly affect the state of education in the country. A low annual education budget, over 90% of which goes for teacher and administrative salaries, is one example. Poor infrastructure that hampers productive learning environments, poor teaching and learning resources, and an assessment structure that operates in non-native languages are several more.
Q.5 Discuss the new trends in secondary education common now around the globe. How these trends are affecting our secondary system of education? Discuss.
Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include helping learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way. Teaching aids also engage students’ other senses since there are no limits in what aids can be utilized when supplementing a lesson.
As students are reading less and less on their own, teachers are finding reading comprehension skills very low among today’s students. Teaching aids are helping teachers to close the gap and hone the reading comprehension skills of their students. Using magazine and newspaper articles, prints ads and even comic books are viable teaching aids that assist in helping students comprehend text.
Teaching aids prove to be a formidable supplement for teachers when the reinforcement of a skill or concept is necessary. Not only do they allow students more time to practice, but they also present the information in a way which offers students a different way to engage with the material. Of course, this is important in order to reach the various learning types in the class.
As previously mentioned, it is important for teachers to reach all learners in a classroom. Therefore, the use of teaching aids facilitates this objective by assisting teachers in differentiating instruction. Using aids such as graphs, charts, flashcards, videos, provides learners with visual stimulation and the opportunity to access the content from a different vantage point. This gives each learner the opportunity to interact with the content in a way which allows them to comprehend more easily